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Full text of "TRS-80 Computing - Vol. 1 No. 3 (1979)(Computer Information Exchange)(US)"

TM 




VOL. 1, NO. 3 



24 PAGES 



$1.50 



CONTENTS 



FEATURES & MISC. 

Level II Basic Reference Manual Index, 

by John Strong 23.24 

Level II uses this shorthand, 

by Joe Deutsch . 7 

New England resources listed 20 

Preliminary DOS, disk Basic manuals indexed, 

by John Strong . . . ' 22 

Radio Shack points up pitfalls 2 

Survey results: Lowercase, denser 

graphics lead 2-4 

DISK: 

Critique: user discusses problems 

with disk system 10 

Problems, 'Lost Data during read', 

by John Strong 5,6 

HARDWARE: 

Beeper from Web Associates connects 

to cassette port 20 

Combine Level II, two-chip Level I?, 

Dave Wood 11 

Has built remote control, Dave Wood 10 

Here's better way to speed up clock, 

by Henry Bartman ._ 9 

High-speed tape, the Beta-1 from Meca 20 

Wants 4MHz clock speed, by Joseph Boykin 9 

PROBLEMS: 

Bug in Level H exponent routine, R.I. Flett- . . . .19 
•Disenchanted" with Radio Shack, R.C. Maxwell. .10 
Monitor loses horizontal hold, John Sullivan. . . .-19 
TV Interference, Donna J. McCaw 11 



Combine two Basic programs, by RonMarkel. . . 7 
Level I has more 'goodies', 

by Richard E. Douglas , , ,7 

List from Robert Purser shows 

those available 11-17 

Personal Ledger from Channel Data . , 19 

Pilot, from Practical Applications 19 

PROGRAMS/PROGRAMMING TIPS: 

Bottom Shelf 100-program library .17 

Bowling league statistics system 

from Aquarius 19 

Columbus TRS-80 commuter computer, 

by Bill Louden 7,8 

...Wanted, Eigenvalue, Eigenvector, 

Heinz W, Sternberg 19 

...Wanted in Bogota... Ropohl F. Eckhard .11 

Software lets you have Level I, n, 

by Jeff Lasman 18 

Use T-Bug to relocate, Max Gaertner ....... .19 

Video Checkers, from Compu-Quote . .9 

CORRECTIONS: 

Error in RAM expansion piece, 

by Doug A. Kopeso 9 

...in 1:1 schematics, Martin Tobias 19 

Level II conversion drawing, 

Dr. Thomas Perera 22 

Lowercase mod story (1:1) errs, 

by Martin Tobias 9 

Lowercase program (1:2) needs Poke, 

by John P. Rahn 9 

Scheil Startrekerrors listed 17 



TRS-80 Compuiiag is published as often as monthly 
by Computer information Exchange, Inc.. a non- 
profit educational corporation, box 158, San Luis 
Rey CA 92068, JOBS STRONG editor. 

Subscription rates to the U.S. are $1S for 12 is- 
sues. To Canada and Mexico, subscriptions are 
$18US for 12 issues; ail other countries $27US. 

No advertising is accepted. Free editorial space 
is given any commercial product that mlgbt be of 
interest to TRS-S0 users. One free pageofdoliars- 
off coupons will be made available to product ven- 
dors, on a space-available basis. 

In keeping with TfiS-80 Computing's nonprofit ed- 



ucational aims, any amount of material from each 
issue may be reproduced by any not-for-profit 
educational group or institution, without prior re- 
quest. Tearsheet is appreciated. Required credit 
Includes: "TRS-80 Computing, box 1S8. San Luis 
Rey CA 92068; $15 for 12 Issues." 

Clubs having regular newsletters may receive 
TRS-80 Computing in exchange, providing C1E is 
also granted similar reprint privileges. 

Organizations or anyone having audio tapes or 
speakers that might be of interest to CIE readers 
should submit them to manager editor Bill 
McLaughlin. If accepted, they will be typeset free, 
with a copy returned with the tape. Office phone is 



(714) 757-4849. 

Editorial contributions of all kinds are requested 
(software, hardware and applications articles, let- 
ters, etc.) and may be submitted either written or 
on cassette. 

"TRS-80 is a Tandy Corporation trademark licens- 
ed to Computer Information Exchange. Computer 
Information Exchange is solely responsible for the 
editorial content of this magazine and Is not an 
agent, subsidiary, or otherwise affiliated with Tandy 
Corporation.** 



Radio Shack points out some problems to avoid 



Radio Siack has recently started in- 
cluding the following list with Level II com- 
puters. It includes material that all Level 
B users should know about, so we reprint 
it here: . 

WON'T READ DATA 
After executing an INP.UT#-n 0nput from 
cassette), some TRS-78OS wiS not READ 
properly from DATA statements. Instead, 
a RESTORE will automatically be per- 
formed before each READ, so that only 
first DATA item will be read. 

If your TRS-80 operates this way (de- 
pends on a few ICs from one supplier), 
there is a simple fix. Insert the statement, 

; POKE 16553,255 

immediately after every INPUT#-n 
statement. 

TRUNCATED PRINTS 
A PRINT#-a statement can put no more 
'Cfiscri "M& \ffv&& on "Jms "sape, "VI you"ti&"«e a 
lengthy PRINT* list, only the first 248 
bytes . will be saved on tape; the rest will 
be lost. Therefore, you should break up 
such lists Into two or more PRINT* 
statements. 

RESETTING EXPANDED TRS-80 

If you have an expansion interface con- 
nected and you need to Reset the com- 
puter, hold 'down the BREAK key and 
press ; Reset, This will return you to the 
MEMORY SiSE -question. Any BASIC pro- 
gram in memory will be lost by this 
Reset sequence. 



LOST VARIABLES 
If y u stop a Basic program during 

execution, and then alter the program 
itself, ?dA variables will be reset where 
you left off- RUN it again. Note : If a 
syntax error is encountered and Basic 
puts yo u in the Edit mode, type E to re- 
turn to me Command mode. You can then 
examine variable values, if you wish, 
before fixing the syntax error. 

LPRINT STALL 

If yo u attempt to execute an LPRINT 
or an £LIST when a line printer is not 
connected (or is turned off) , the coin-. . 
puter wiU "freeze up". Either turn on the 
line printer, or, W one is not connected. 
Reset the computer (see Lost Variables 
above.) 

FUNCTIONS SINGLE-PRECISION 

All tpe built-in mathematical functions 
in. Lex** 1 il Basic, return sin^.e-nrecision 
results ( 6-7 digits of accuracy). Trig 
functions use or return radians, not de- 
grees, A radian-degree conversion is 
given ifi the LEVEL n Reference Manual. 

OBSCURE 

Shift characters are not always inter- 
change^ 6 with their unshifted counter- 
parts. For example, PRINT @ will not 
work if you use a shifted @ , even though 
it will l°°fc ok on the screen. If you can't 
And anything wrong with a line which 
causes * syntax error message, try re- 
typing the line, watching out for the 
shift key. 



a: 
« 
a 
eo 

to 



10 



; Spaces are sometimes important In 
Level II Basic. The following line is in- 
correct: 

IFD 0D=0 
because OD is interpreted to i mean 
"double-precision zero". Change it to; 
IFD O THEN D=0 

SECOND CASSETTE 
To use the CLOAD? with cassette #2, 
use this format: 

CLOAD#-2, ^'filename" 

KEY BOUNCE 

If you frequently get "double entries", 
when pressing a particular key, remove 
the plastic key cap, and carefully clean: 
the contacts, using a stiff piece of paper. 
Insert the paper between the contacts, 
press the key down to pinch the paper, 
and pull the paper out while the contacts, 
are pinching it. 

The maximum TAB for an LPRINT 
statement is 63. The Line Printer won't . 
tab past column 63. There's a simple way _ 
around this limitation, using the STRING? .<© 
function to simulate tabs past column 63.. o. 
Example: . .** 

LPRLVT TAB <5)"NAME"TAB(30) * 
"ADDRESS"STRINGS(63,32)"BALANCE" «< 
will print "NAME" at column 5, O 
"ADDRESS" at column 30, and ^ 

"BALANCE" at column 100. « 

If you have other questions regarding P3 
operation of your TRS-80, call Customer. m 
Service, (817) 390-3583, or write: TRS-— < 
80 Customer Service, Radio Shack, box ? 
185, Ft. Worth TX 76102 M 






Lowercase, denser graphics, better cassette lead in survey - 



A user survey was included in TRS-80 
Computing 1:2, to be filled out and re- 
turned to San Luis Rey. 

Of 162 surveys received and compiled 
prior to press time, 158 own, four borrow 
or desire TRS-80s. 

Lowercase letters were requested by8l, 
or exactly half of those returning surveys. 
Denser graphics came next with 41 re- 
quests, with better, faster cassette follow- 
ing with 23, numeric pad, 21, and better, 
unbounced keyboard Id. 

Color graphics scored 15, one-piece 
ease 13, better cassette relay 8, sound 6. 
Built-in serial interface, 6, 

Six owners wanted full control of cursor, 
five wanted S-100 interfacing. 

Better store support accumulated 10 
comments, ranging from maintaining 
computer items in stock (1), making 
lowercase modification (1), classes (2), 
knowledgeable clerks (3), and communi- 
cation and word processing, each one the 
exact meaning now forgotten. 

Reference manuals also accumulated 
much flack, 44, but spread over: DOS (5), 
maintenance and repair (3), Level II 
written like Level I manual (3), listings 
and manuals on Basics and system soft- 
ware (8), on machine language (2), editor/ 
assembler (1), the expansion Interface (2), 
disk documentation (2), and just "manuals" 
(8). 

Suggested. BOMmed. system, software in- 
cluded renumbering (7), Fortran (1), Pas- 



cal (ij, assembler (5), and. machine lang- 
uage monitor (1), and a bigger Basic (1). 

Many complaints were about packaging: 
expansion interface connector too short 
(2), res** should be on keyboard, and lock 
(l), plugs keyed so tney can't be put in 
wrong (2), master on/off (2), colored 
plastic (1) *nd improved quality (4), and 
dust covers (1). 

Second cassette without expansion inter- 
face sc ^ 3, and two owners wanted 
cassette deck built onto keyboard unit. 
Eight wanted computer-controlled cas- 
sette, o°c wanted switch to turn on cas- 
sette for rewind and fasfr-forward, another 
wanted self-check on loading, and program 
listing displayed during CLOADing (1), 

CPU speedup was mentioned by mree, 
full cursor control by six. 80-cfcaracter 
line dMP**y (1), mortnlar 1 tp—mm box 
(2), with option of ROM in higher IMC (I). 
easler-to-use graphics (1), ^irwwu wdtar 
screen (1). and music £)■ 

Eight .wanted higher disk capacity, 
bubble iflemory (1), greater memory with- 
out explosion box (3), and aoooaex ■ wrfi.il 
built-in timer. Also without boyfaar ex- 
pansion box parallel port (5), D2KE 488 
(1), pape r tape (1), and card reader P). 

Alg interface: real-world (3), joysticks 
(3), paddl es < 2 )i originate/answer modem 
(1), remote keyboard (l). On the keyboard, 
user-denned keys (2), and command keys 

(3). 

'Be'&e*" powKt-aapi&y '<f£j l 'sxf&*'in «&&'»&- 
tery backup (1,1), supplies and shielding 



(RFI/EMI) accounted for 2,1 respectively. 

Interest in rebuilt Radio-Shack supplied 
Selectric was 3, echo-back printer-key- 
board feature, 1, and Radio Shaek Cent- 
ronics modifications for graphics and 
lowercase, 1. 

Larger video screen, (l), scrolling con- 
trol scored (5), finer video scan (6), 
remote video terminal (1), and improved 
definition (3). 

SOFTWARE 

Increased accuracy was requested three 
times, speed once. Also eliminate bugs in 
Basic, 1, make error messages more 
specific, not wipe ant variables during 
Reset, make compiler Basic available 
(2,1). 

Also on Basle, aser-defined functions 
(14), bigger HC—iim it Basic. 3, remove 
unwanted mats fc a tara s <1), add append 
and chain feafeates fl^), MAT (5), IMAGE 
0.), passwwrd 0), slowed scrolling on 
UST (1). Also mentioned were GOSL'B 
VAB. GOTO VAB. 0,1,1), syntax checking 
wn&e 1 njaa, 0), and having Level Q in- 
sert a T» at locaHoa of error, as does 
LewdL 

OceaMWed Level I & II is same computer 
fared 8, dock built into Level II (1), in- 
ternals O), improved editor (3), relocate 
edtter/aaBenfater (3), text editing (4), 
and ayatam diagnostic cassette (3), 

CPM drew coe mention, improved DOS 
(3), typewriter-like Shift (1), Focal, 
PaseaL PQot 0,3,2), plotting <S). and 
easier-to-use real-time clock (l). 



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Want competitive price for add ons, Level I's good features 



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Lowercase, both CPU and in RS printers 
as well as RS support of word processing. 

A memory expansion kit that is compete 
itiveiy priced, so as to cut down the num- 
ber of non-eleotronies skilled folks who 
would purchase the cheapest kit with un- 
tested RAMs and poor Instructions, and 
end up either zapping the MOS RAMs or 
just plain getting bad ones. In my ex- 
perience in development and production 
of electronics equipment for government 
and Indus try, I have always found that 
when equipment or components from 
otters w-ere incorporated in our gear, we 
always got the blame. As a result, I can 
see RS having returned any number of 
butchered-up units that have been worked 
on by owners who have trouble with the 
Thanksgiving Turkey, much less having 
any knowledge or experience working with 
high-density circuit boards and critical 
components. If RS provided such a kit, it 
should include the RAMs as well as DIP 
Jumper blooks. If this was done, it could 
at least be assured that the non- 
experienced individual could be given 
proper directions with regards to instal- 
lation , and that for sure he/she would be 
fully instructed not to get so excited about 
getting more RAM that he/she does a dance 
on a shag rug with leather-soled shoes and 
then kisses his MOS goodbye with a 1-inch 
spark. 

Level I Basic should be dropped and only 
Level II offered. Level I Is fine, and the 
instruction manual is well-done. One of 
the few that I have seen that can get a 
newcomer into computing quickly, and in 
that regard is fine. The faults I would see 
with Level I are, in mat in the interest in 
cutting down memory usage, any number of 
abbreviations of commands/statements 
are used, and I would question this for the 
average user. As an example: the word 
PRINT means something to almost every- 
one, but when shortened to P., both the un- 
informed as well as old-time Basic time- 
share users such as myself, have to think 
about it. For sure, the Level I Basic 
accepts the full statements, but the manual 
directs one towards the short form which 
is not usable to Level H or most other ad- 
vanced Basic systems, to my case I have 
warteed with computers for some 15 years 
and have been programming to Basic for at 
least 10 years, and would suggest that there 
1* no reason for toe existence of Level I 
to toe TBS-80nowthattheproducthasbeen 
eBtobltoked. I have always had access to 
cacnpattog activity until I went into 
bastoaB s for myself, and it was only a few 
years ago I gave serious consideration to 
an EP system at 10 to 20 times the price. 
My point here is that I purchased a Level 
H so that 1 could obtain the necessary funct- 
ions and capability. They all work fine, but 
when l attempt to teach my youngsters pro- 
gramming to Basic, I find it is damn hard 
to Just let them read the Level I manual, 
since at least some of it does not apply to 
Level H on a one-to-one basis. So why 
bother with Level L since those familiar 
with Basic will require retraining, as will 
all Level I users when they go to Level IL 
Level Q is no harder than Level I to terms 



of learning the basic operations and only 
happens to offer greater potential. 

A keypad would be handy, and I see RS. 
now offers it for $90 which would seem a 
little high. If they threw in a lowercase mod 
at the same time, it would most likely be 
a good seller and would keep a lot of folks 
from butchering-up their circuit board 
with an exacto knife. 

Regarding TRS-80 Computing. I find 
that the copies I have received to date 
very Interesting, It is good to see folks 
developing some needed mods, and I 
would expect to see some of these in new 
TRS-80S before long. I do however have 
one suggestion to this regard. I would 
suspect that many of your readers are 
not skilled to electronics fabrication be- 
yond a simple Heathktt or two, and could 

well cause themselves a problem attempt- 
tog some of the suggested mods. Someplace 
along the line you are going to run into a 
guy who has at his TRS-80 with a kitchen 
knife, a 350-watt soldering gun, a roll of 
acid core and the wire left over from adding 
running lights to his camper. Thus every 
artiole should contain a statement that it 
should not be attempted by a novice until. 
he has learned the right procedure and 
has the proper tools. Also, it would be a 
good idea to indicate if possible, how 
many units have been modified, and toe 
extent to which the mod has been checked 
out. Most of toe articles on mods are clear 
to me, but are a little on toe sketchy side 
and could do with a little better drawings 
or referral to RS's tech manual, (a copy 
of which I haven't gotten yet) to make 
sure the owner cuts the right foil, finds 
the right IC etc. 

In any case, keep up the good work. I 
might also mention that I would guess 
toat many of us would like to see more on 
use of non-RS peripherals, as well as pro- • 
gram listings of useful programs, 

— G.W, STOMBERG, 3010 Broadmoor 
dr., Las Cruces NM 88001 

LEVEL I FEATURES 

1 wish that Level H and Disk BASIC 
had kept all the nice features of Level I, 
such as: 

1) You don't lose all your variables, 
strings and arrays every time you 
make the least change in your pro- 
gram—even one character. 

2) You don't lose the whole program if 
you push Reset. 

3) No need to dimension arrays. (If you 
have to DIM, you should be able to re- 
DIM later to the program.) 

4) No need to reserve space for strings. 
(If you must, you should be able to 
change this without using CLEAR— 
for Pete's sake!) 

5) Wrap-around graphics. A pleasant 
convenience (but you can program 
around this loss and survive.) 

6) All those abbreviations— I really don't 
care about. I'm glad Level It/Disk 
has a ' symbol for REM— makes the 
program easier to scan, and I wish the 
interpreter didn't convert the ? (for 
Print) to the word PRINT when you 



List— but these are minor.) 
Other wishes Include lowercase and denser 
graphics. Random files on disk don't have 
to be this complicated! (That ribbon cable 
between the keyboard and interface is too 
short! One strong point of the TRS-80 was 
toat you could put the keyboard to a good 
typing position without having the video up 
against your nose. This cable ought to be 
shielded and at least two feet longer. And 
optional cables of various lengths should be 
available— shielded, of course.) 

I could write a book on toe good things in 
Level I (which, considering Its size Is 
miraculous!) and Level II and disk Basic. 
Except for the items above, toe Radio Shack 
Basics are a delight. But this Is a 
gripe session, right? 

-B.C. TAYLOR, 3723 Purdue, Houston 
TX 77005 

LOWERCASE KEYBOARD 

Standard lowercase characters— this is 
so important, toe others don't count for 
much— I voided the warranty to get lower- 
case and don't like having to do that! 

Decent keyboard, with good feel and no 
repeats, I really think it's #&l*y to add a 
standard numeric keypad and penalize 
earlier purchasers by making them pay 
$85 for it. It must cost almost nothing, or 
they couldn't make it standard with no. 
price rise. For a $10-15 service fee,' Td 
like it. For $85.. .up toeirsW " " 

On Basic, Level H ability in Edit to 
Edit line*. 

— R. HATCH, 5375 Wellesley, La Mesa 
CA 92041 

USER FUNCTIONS, CLOCK, Reset 

I really would have liked user defined 
functions included in Level II. There are 
many programs, mostly games, toat re- 
quire it. 

It would be nice if the clock funotion in 
the expansion interface were available a 
little more easily. 

The Reset switch— I would have liked it 
to have been located on toe surface of the 
keyboard, but away from toe main keys, 
and with a lock to prevent accidental trip- 
ping. And I am distressed by the remarks 
on the fact toat you lose everything to toe 
expansion interface memory when you hit 
the Reset button. I know toat you can pre- 
vent loss by CSAVEing a program out, but 
it then requires you to CLOAD the program 
back in again to RUN, and any program 
over 20K takes a while to load at 500 baud J 

And just a question— when are we going 
to have an Originate/ Answer modem avail- 
able to US? HMMMmMMMM? 

—BARRY J. KOEB, 5060 Bakman ave.. 
Apt. 10, N. Hollywood CA 91601 

LOWERCASE 

While I realize that lowercase is of 
more Importance to some than others, 
there should be an option for those who 
do prefer it. This option should be furn- 
ished by toe Radio Shack in order that an 
owner can rest assured that his unit is 
being worked on by qualified personnel. 

— J.D. ROSS, 4012 Shenandoah ave„ 
Dallas TX 75205 



Compiler could use Level II routines, wants list on loading m 

"■• same square). Interface for color • 



Also, with cassette, more than one pro- 
gram in memory at a time (1), and tape 
that converts non-Radio Shack tapes to 
Level D (1). 

As for disk, editor/assembler (1), and 
less complicated files (1). 

Of those who borrow or "covet" (words 
of the survey) a TRS-80, one thought the 
survey was for TRS-80 Computing edit- 
orial suggestions. Two of the remaining 
three want lowercase letters and higher 
resolution graphics, one further wants the 
printer to have lowercase letters and high 
resolution graphics. 

Thomas A. Nelson of Salt Lake City 
wrote: "Non-bouncy keys; dependable tape. 

I like the design but want higher quality 
and better dependability. Wouldn't mind 
somewhat higher price. I don't like other 
computers because they do not have the 
support only a big company can give. 
Tandy could improve quality, raise price 
and sell me a computer". Nelson lives at 
826 E, Parkway ave„ zip 84106. 

Here follow some of the more eloquent 
replies from the 162-return sample (about 
two-thirds of replies received to date): 

WANTS MORE, MORE 

More reliable keyboard (anddebounced) 
with a lower profile, quieter, smoother 
action and n-key rollover. 

A color scheme with lively colors. 
A tougher, less-brittle plastic case such as 
used on some Ihfoton terminals, A 4- 
raegahertz CPU and associated electron- 
ics. 

A finer-scan video terminal. Lowercase 
and special characters that print. Full 
ASCII character set. At least 24x80 video 
screen. Pull keyboard cursor control with 
line insertion and deletion. Complete con- 
trol over video scrolling like a UNTVAC 
. UNISCOPE 100 but smarter scroll control. 

Screen tabs that are programmable and 
unique to the screen as in the li-100, as 
well as columnar tabs. Underlining, re- 
verse video, protected and blinking fields 
(as well as tabs) that do not require (or 
occupy) dead spaces on the video screen. 
A winking cursor that does not erase the 
character in the same space with it, but 
changes back and forth between the cursor 
character and the character in that posi- 
tion. Control key and shift lock. 

Ability to switch from Level I to Level 

II without losing memory or n-key rol- 
lover. 

Finer resolution graphics capability. 
Ability to write in the space immediately 
to the left of a graphics square (but not in 



TOLL-FREE NUMBER 

Hugh Matthias' Computing Ser- 
vices now has a TOLL-FREE 
NUMBER— Oh, happy day! It is 
(800) 433-1679. He still has the 
old number too, so if you can't 
get through on the free number 
(business is expected to be 
brisk— can't imagine why) you 
may have to dial (817) 390- 
3583 and pay Ma Bell yourself. 



the 

graphics on a home TV". 

Big floppies with dual-sided and double 
density drives (1.6 megabyte) such as 
Shugart SA850. Rigid disks such as CAL- 

Comp Marksman or Shugart SA4000. 

Programmable tabs that work on the 
printer as well— not like the Intel MOS230 
(yuchkl) 

A line-number oriented editor that works 
on Basic programs as well as assembly 
language, 

A letter- quality printer. 

Stepwise upgrades to add the above or 
below features in reasonable dollar in- 
crements. 

Fix bug in Level I tbatcauses Blackjack 
to wipe out first two lines of source code 
if you enter nothing when It asks you to 
hit or stand etc. (and then play— or try to 
play— the next hand.) 

Take out "A" abbreviation for "AT"' in 
print statements. How silly! Why don't 
fractional steps always work on loops? 
Why is FOR-NEXT limited to 32K? (-32K 
TO*32K). Why can't we put REM after 
RETURN or GOT07 Int(-.6) is but 
should be -1! 

Don't get me wrong, I really like my 
TRS-80. It is very addicting. I want more, 
more, more, more, more!!! 

—JON KETTENHOFEN, 5810 W. Carol 
Ann way, Gleadale A2 85306 



•SAFETY' CLOAD 

Guns have "safety" switches. Why not a 
CLOAD safety switch or program mod so 
a truly stupid like me cannot lose or un- 
intentionally "wipe-out" during CLOAD? 
Why not have every CLOAD a CLOAD? 
unless you manually over-ride it? Grief! 
Grief! Grief! 

How about a decent Level II tutorial for 
text for Level n too? (by Dave Lein). 

Why not offer a low-cost power Interrupt 
(save your program) option? It could be 
either simple "A" cell ni-cads for the +5 
VDC, +12VDC and -5VDC requirements 
and only have to run a minute or twc.or 
conversely, a std 12VDC auto storage bat- 
tery driving a 120VAC inverter, a la 
Heathkit, which the TRS-80 uses as a 
power source. 

How about offering a DIP switch select- 
ed option thai allows us users to purchase 
from Radio Stack a ROM (12K up) option 
for either FORTRAN (yuk) °r PASCAL 
(yeech)? I would certainly buy it. 

Rather than save ai a TRS-80 system, 
why not make the conoecting cables 12" 
longer so my two cassettes are access- 
ible,. .also bring video display cable out of 
the REAR. 

There is absolutely no valid excuse for 
selling the expansion/interface wimotia 
decent manual, schematic, or even sim- 
plistic explanation of what it does and bow- 
it works! 

Include one ounce of methyl alcohol and a 
swab with every cassette. Maybe every 
TRS-80 owner would get the message 
about "clean cassette heads work better." 
(Seems like I have "fixed" every cassette 
in NY state this way). 

-ROBERT M. RICHARDSON, Drawer 
1066, Chautauqua NY 14722 



EXPANSION INTERFACE * 

Instead of expansion interface being "all " 

inclusive" it may have been better if you 

could add controUer or RAM boards as ** 

you need them rather than giving you disk u 

controllers if you want only more RAM, o 

and so forth, *-< 

—JOHN F. STRAZZARINO, 637 m 

Brussels St., San Francisco C A 94134 '"' 



COMPILED BASIC 

Two cassettes without expansion inter- 
face. 

Compiled Basic with same statements as 
Level n. It could produce a series of sub- 
routine calls to Level Q" ROM. 

Ability to use cassette for unattended 
operation of long programs. This requires 
ability to link programs and some way to 
rewind cassette and switch from Read to 
Write under software control. Floppy disks 
can do this, but they are expensive and have * 
limited storage capacity. If cassettes can © 
be used unattended, speed is not a primary « 
consideration. * 

—PAUL GEISSLER, 12504 Windover << 
Turn, Bowie MD 20715 O 



BETTER DOCUMENTATION * 

Steve Lelnlnger has given us a pretty w 
good machine with the help of Radio Shaok <o 
merchandising but it lacks certain refine- '£ 
ments to qualify as a business system, -3 
lowercase printing and display. And since 
CP/M probably supports the broadest set oj 
of business applications software, itwould la 
be desirable to have a compatible TRS-80 
CP/M system especially as Radio Shack oo 
isn't turning out business software appli- m 
cations as fast as they are TRS-80 com- *** 
puters that are supposed to be of or have * 
business capability, ^ 

Some features are probably in the 
system that aren't even documented, and 
some features such as ohaining are men- 
tioned in some of Tandy- Radio Shack's 
literature, but don't seem to be available 
or aren't explained. 

On the whole, it's a pretty good system 
(the only one I have experience with), but 
it Is not without potential to cause one 
frustrations. Radio Shack and the TRS-80 
did a lot to advance microcomputing in 
spite of the TRS-80' s shortcomings. m 

— T. SWALE.XBERG, box 13089, Col- ^ 
umbus OH 43213 

LET ON LOAD S5 

I would enjoy the computer listing the £J 
program as it is loading. This would let p 
you know what you were loading and iden- ^ 
tijy any loading problems before the end 5 
offceload. 5 

I would also like to know how to pre- y 
vent the computer from clearing all data 
every time I type RUN and/or change a® 
line "in my program. In fact, it would help 1 
if the Swfcnictian manual had enough in- w 
formatfcK to allow some working with OS 
machine level changes in the ROM. Don't E -1 
get me wrong— I love it, but these changes 1 
would make it more helpful to me. v 

—WILLIAM C. SHARPE, 45? Moreland 
ave. N.E.. Atlanta GA 3031? 



3 



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Disk-system problem: that 'lost data during read 1 (ugh!) 



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By JOHN STRONG 
Author copyright 1979 
3733 Mt, Ataagosa pi. 
San Diego CA 92111 
There axe a series of unpleasant error 
messages which some DOS users see 
occasionally. One extremely aggravating 
message is DATA LOST DURING READ. 
It causes the TRS-80 to go back into TRS- 
DOS from Basic, give a DOS READY mes- 
sage and erase everything in RAM . Back 
to GO and do not collect $200!!! 

If you had a painstakingly-created pro- 
gram or computation in RAM— that's tuft 
B seems reasonable to a dumb user ftne) 
that this particular error message 
shouldn't have to wipe out RAM. How about 
that Radio Shack? 

Moaning won't help much, but certain 
other measures ease the pain. We have ' 
about ten DOS users in our San Diego TUG. 
When we started comparing notes about 
TRS problems we were surprised to find 
DOS problems rather common. Some users 
(neophytes to computing) were under &e 
impression that frequent disk errors were 
par for the course. Not true at all. A few 
DOS users report virtually trouble-free 
operation, sometimes from the very start 
and sometimes after various repairs. Pre- 
sumably, all DOS systems should act that 
way once their bugs are fixed. 

We list below some of the things you 
can do or cures you can try if you are 
having DOS problems. Some of the items 
are recommended by Radio Shack, others 
are the untested suggestions of apparently 
knowledgeable people. In any event read 
the whole list and try the easy cures first. 
Let us know how you come out. 

YOUR DEALER 
Talk over your problem with your deal- 
er. He probably won't help much because 
few dealers have direct experience with 
DOS— but try anyway. It makes him feel 
important. 

R.S. REPAIRMAN 

Turn In the entire computer to your 
dealer to be fixed If it develops frequent 
DOS errors. Your local official Radio 
Shack repairman should be the best qual- 
ified to guide you. IdeaUy, do this before 
the warranty on the interface expires. 

HUGH MATTHIAS 

Call or write Hugh Matthias, Radio Shack 
Cocr-puttng Services, box 185, Ft. Worth TX 
76it2, (817) 390-3583, ask to speak to a 
DOS programming expert and rap with 
him. He has some extremely helpful 
experts or. his staff and they are sympath- 
etic ar,d helpful. Some of the items in this 
list are from them. As mentioned else- 
where in this issue, Hugh Matthias also 
has a toll-free number, (800) 433-1679. 

INTERFERENCE 
Interference and noise on the AC power 
line can cause DOS glitches, A line inter- 
ference filter is sometimes helpful. Rad- 
io Shack sells one for TV, AM and FM: 
Archer Cat. #15-1106. The boys (and 
girls; in the back room at Matthias' re- 
commend one sold by Allied Electronics? 



"Twin-T" AC Filter #7542060/lORl at 
$16.98 as being the best available for TRS- 
80 use. If you have only one filter available 
it should go on the power cord from the in- 
terface. Don't get that cord mixed up with 
the power cord from the CPU power supply 
which happens also to be located in the In- 
terface. 

Do not attempt to use one line filter for 
your entire TRS-80 system. To do so 
would leave the interface unprotected from 
other units In the system which might be 
making noise: line printer, disk drives, 
etc. If you have a second filter, put It on 
the CPU. Beyond that, who knows? I would 
try the disk drives but it is your system. 
Experiment. 

LINE SURGES 

Power surges on the AC line may be to 
blame. High voltage surges may damage 
the computer and low voltage surges may 
cause the power supplies to go out of reg- 
ulation, making the computer crash. 

If the surges are due to nearby heavy 
equipment being switched on or off, plug 
the computer Into another circuit. That 
may help. An expensive but more certain 
solution would be to buy a Sola constant 
voltage transformer at an electronic 
equipment store. Radio Shack doesn't sell 
these transformers. The line printer prob- 
ably does not need to be plugged into the 
Sola, which is lucky, because it takes so 
much current. 

Just on general principles you should use 
good, heavy extension cords and multiple 
receptacle strips. Avoid a rat's nest of 
cords and cube sockets. 

BAD MEMORY 

Bad memory chips may be to blame. In 
the early months of the TRS-80 program 
some bad memory chips were used. They 
weren't bad then but they are now and they 
cause a bunch of irritating problems— es- 
pecially mysterious syntax errors. Radio 
Shack is eager to root out these bad chips 
and replace them free. (If you are in 
warranty?) 

BUFFER CABLE 

Radio Shack has found that some pro- 
blems in expansion interfaces with 16Kor 
32 K memory are due to parts tolerance 
and design margin. If your repairman finds 
that your computer is one of the few that 
has this problem, he will install a buffer 
cable between the keyboard and the inter- 
face and make certain internal changes 
in the interface. Sometimes it helps, and 
sometimes it doesn't. 

One thing is certain. Once you have had 
the buffer cable modification, NEVEB 
switch back to the old cable. Doing so will 
burn out the interface power supply, 

BACKUP DISKS 
Radio Shack says the very first thing you 
should do with your new DOS system is to 
make a BACKUP of the TRSDOS disk. I 
disagree, I think you should make three 
backups I Boy, when you are out of TRSDOS 
disks, you're out of computing!! I know. It 
happened to me. And while you are at it, 
make two backups of any Important data 



disks you may be using. 

This won't solve the problem complete- 
ly, but can convert a major disaster into a 
minor irritation. Remember that, unlike 
cassettes, disks can be destroyed if there 
is a computer failure during reading. That 
is, the information on a disk can be erased 
or changed so it is permanently unavail- 
able. And, unfortunately, there are plenty 
of ways to permanently damage a disk, 

FAULTY DISKS 

Bad diskettes may be to blame. No mat- 
ter how many times you bulk-erase them, 
they Continue to cause sporadic errors. 



HOW THIS REPORT 
GOT WRITTEN 

It all started in mid-October when I 
started using my new dual-drive TRSDOS 
system. Problems galore— most of them 
due to my inexperience and ignorance. 
With the help of a couple of smart Rad- 
io Shack dealers and other friends who 
had TRSDOS systems, I finally got my 
system going. But operation was far 
from acceptable and I was desperate. I 
planned to use the system for a business 
application and without a lot more re- 
liability, the operation was doomed. 

First, I went to a San Diego TUG 
meeting and talked to all 12 members 
who had disk systems. Some had never 
had any trouble at all, some hadproblems 
but cured them and others still had ser- 
ious problems and were mad. I listened 
to everybody and noted all cures and 
improvements. 

Then, 1 put myself in the hands of our 
local TRS-80 repairman, Tim Hensler. 
He helped, a lot— especially when he 
pointed out that my two drives were con- 
nected backwards! Gadzooks! Still not 
100 per cent reliable though. 

Then on a business trip through Texas, 
1 stopped in Ft . Worth for face to face 
discussions with the Matthias crew of 
TRS-80 problem solvers. 

So this article is the result. A com- 
pilation of all the remotely sensible- 
sounding cures I've heard about for re- 
ducing TRS-80 problems. I haven't 
checked them all, but I presume that you 
are as eager for immediate help as I was, 
so here they are, unchecked. Try any or 
all of them and if they work, use them. 

It is obvious at this point that no one 
particular item is the source of most 
problems. Even the famous buffered 
cable fix does no good on some systems— 
probably because those systems are 
being goofed up by other things: disk 
damage, interference or what not. 

It surprised me. to note that TRS-80 
owners with previous experience on 
large computers had the least trouble. 
Maybe that was due to their more 
reverent handling of diskettes and care 
to ensure a clean environment for the 
TRS-80. We slobs should take note and 
clean up our act. —JOHN 



LOST DATA, Coat.: 

To guard against this, assign every one of 
your diskettes a serial number. Then make 
a record of every disk error that occurs 
in your system, the serial number of the 
diskette involved and the disk drive num- 
ber. You may be surprised to find that 
some diskettes never have errors and 
others are error-prone. Replace the stink- 
ers. 

If one of your DOS disks Is the culprit, 
replace it with a new DOS disk from Rad- 
io Shack. Or you could replace it with a 
BACKUP (on a new blank disk) of one of 
your other DOS disks which works pro- 
perly. If the culprit turns out to be one 
used in drive 1,2 or 3, replace it with a new 
disk which you have formatted. In both 
cases you may be able to reuse the bad 
disk after erasing it with a bulk eraser 
then FORMATing it, noting any bad tracks 
that are detected. Then bulk-erase and re- 
FORMAT it a couple more times. If the 
same tracks show up bad every time, it is 
probably safe to use it as a data disk with 
those tracks locked out. But if different 
tracks show up bad, you have a real stinker 
on your hands. Retire it, 

MASTER SWITCH NOT GOOD 

Tim Hensler told me about this one. 
Avoid using one master switch on a plug 
strip to turn off /on the entire TRS-80 
system. Turn off/on each unit in turn 
using its local power switch— keyboard 
last. 

That sounded odd to me but a couflle of 
experts pointed out that turning on the 
whole system all at once could cause 
voltage spikes or transients which might 
blow out an IC— even including the Z80 
itself. 

The local power switch on each unit 
usually interrupts the DC voltage to its 
circuits but leaves the AC to its power 
supply still turned on. Personally, I amnot 
very keen on leaving my power supplies 
on all the time, especially when 1 am not 
home. So instead, I plug all my units into 
a large plug strip with a master switch. 
After I have individually turned off the 
more vulnerable units ( the keyboard and 
the interface), I turn off the master switch 
and let the transients do what they will. 
My major ICs are now isolated and pro- 
tected because I turned them off first. 

How about that Radio Shack? Is that OK? 

By the way, the officially-sanctioned 
power-up sequence is: Turn ON the inter- 
face. Turn ON the mini disk drives one 
after the other with the terminal drive 
tost (26-1160). Turn ON the keyboard 
last. Power-down is the reverse. 

CLOCK OFF 

One user recommends that the clock 
always be turned off when it is not being 
used (CMD"T"). Presumably, this should 
eliminate or sharply reduce disk errors. 
It is not clear which commands require 
that the clock be ON but this could be 
found out without too much trouble. The 
problem is that I haven't found a single 
computer expert who thinks this makes any 
sense at alL The only thing in its favor 
is the fact that two different users insist 
it solved all their problems. So try it. You 
may like it. 



DUST 
The evil specter of dust on diskettes 
hovers over us all. Keep those disks 
clean and keep dust covers over the com- 
puter when it is not being used. We have 
no proof that Mr, Clean has less disk 
errors than anyone else, but it sounds 
like a good idea anyway, 

DISK VENTILATION 

The first TRS-80 disk drives tended 
to overheat if used for long periods or with 
heavy-duty cycles. If your disks develop 
errors after their drives have heated up 
for an hour or more, they may need bet- 
ter ventilation. Mini-disk enclosures are 
now available with four ventilation slots 
on the top cover and four in the bottom 
chassis. Your local TRS-80 repairman 
can install them, free— presumably, if 
your covers and chassis are the old type 
with no ventilation slots, 

LOGIC BOARDS 

We have two reports of cases where per- 
sistent disk errors stopped only after re- 
placement of logic boards in the keyboard, 
interface or disk drives. Drastic action 
indeed. 

TIRED DISKS 

Here is one for the books. One user 
found all Ms disk problems miraculously 
cured when he operated his drive unit on 
its side ! Explain that if you can. Tired 
disks? Iron-poor blood? It sounds to me 
like he had better get his disk drive to his 
friendly TRS-80 z-epairman— and quickly. 
It has a screw loose in its innards. 

STATIC ELECTRICITY 

Back in the old days of high voltages, 
high currents and high wattages we had 
no problem with static electricity, just 
heat. Now with low voltages, ourrents and 
watts the heat problem is solved but we 
have picked up a new sensitivity to static 
electricity. All sorts of weird goings-on 
are blamed on static charges— especially 
with computers used in rooms with thick, 
spark-producing carpets. Humidifiers 
might help on cold, dry days. Metallic table 
tops might help, I have heard of poeple 
lining the plastic cases with aluminum 
foil— but that sounds much too dangerous 
for me. 

I hear that 3M makes an anti-static 
top cover for such applications. Anyone 
know about it? 

CMD"E" 
Want to know more about what caused 
that DISK I/O ERROR? I hear that CMD"E" 
will give you that information. Haven't 
tried it yet though. 

TERMINAL DRIVE: 26-1160 

Be aware that the instructions on where 
to connect what disk drive are wrong in 
the Mini Disk Operators Manual. Refer 
instead to "More Things You Should Know" 
August -30, 1978, Item #1. Specifically, a 
26-1160 should go in the terminal drive 
(the one with the highest drive number) and 
26-1161 drives should be used in all other 
positions, 

DISKS NEED SLEEP TOO 

Never leave disks in a disk drive over- 
night or for several hours, even if the 



computer is turned off, and especially not 
when the diskette retaining clip is closed, m 
That presses the diskette up against the * 
read/write head leaving a dimple on the w 
surface of the diskette in the last track ra 
used. " 

That dimple will make the head skip p> 
bits and cause a disk error, hi some cases ""' 
the dimple wiE be permanent and that ^ 
track will never be usable again. If you are ° 
lucky, a few hours rest (out of the disk 
drive, of course) will restore the disk to 2 
health and permit you to use the data on » 
it. Never turn the computer on or off with 
the disk in the drive slot. Serious damage 
may occur. The proper time to insert 
and remove the disk is discussed below: 

INSERTING A DISKETTE 

Radio Shack recommends the following 
procedure to insert and remove diskettes: 

The diskette should be inserted before 
the keyboard is turned on but after all the 
rest of the computer has been turned on. 

Remove the diskette after the program 
has ended and all files CLOSEd but before „, 
any power switches are turned off. <& 

Be sure that the disk drive is stopped & 
when you insert or remove a diskette. ^ 

Check that the hole in the center of the 
diskette is centered reasonably well in the ** 
jacket hole. If not, use a pen or penoil ^ 
fcot your finger) to center the diskette ap- >> 
proximately. * 

Insert the diskette in the slot, write- K ' 
protect notch up, and make sure it is seated « 
properly. "3 ' 

Slowly and carefully close the mini-disk ^ , 
latch. If the latch doesn't close easily, 
don't force it. Re-insert the diskette and rt 
try again. A little unnecessary brutality w ( 
at this point can chew up the edge of the 
hole in the diskette and it's goodbye <o« 
forever to that disk! ■» « 

TLC FOR DISKETTES 

It was Larry Wright, an astute Radio 
Shack store manager from Kansas City 
who first made rae aware of the need for 
gentle treatment of diskettes. He pointed 
out that many DOS troubles can be pre- 
vented by disk handling procedures that 
have been common in the computer field 
for years. We newcomers just don't know 
about them— so here goes. The following 
list includes suggestions from many Radio 
Shack souroes including Larry Wright and 
Hugh Matthias experts. 

Keep diskettes in closed storage en- 
velopes whenever they are not being used 
in the computer. Never leave them in a 
drive unit when the computer is turned off. 

Don't touch ANY of the exposed surfaces 
of the diskette and don't try to wipe or 
clean the diskette. 

No magnetic fields from transformers, 
motors or magnets please. 

Diskettes hate heat and direct sunlight. 
Proper storage temperatures are between 
50 and 125 deg. F (12-52 deg. C). 

No smoking, cigarette ashes or dust 
around diskettes. 

Write on the diskette jacket label ONLY 
with a felt-tip pen. A ballpoint or lead 
pencil can damage the diskette surface. 

Again, be sure the disk drive is stopped 
when you insert or remove a diskette. 

Store diskettes vertically like phono 
records so they won't warp. 

(Continued on page 17) 



M ; 

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HI— 

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Three-liner lets you combine two Basic programs 



By RON MARKEL 

TRS-80 Level II Basic maintains a "start 
£J of program" pointer at location X 1 40A4' 

(Decimal 16548) in its RAM communi- 
£ cation area (storage from address V00 
.« to address X 1 42E8'— see Level n Basic 
^ reference manual pages D/l and D/2). 
,-, This pointer is initialised to X<42E9' 

Level II uses 
this shorthand 

Compliments of Joe Deutsch, the following 
represent Level H tokens for system com- 
mands. 

These tokens are used to save space 
in storage of Level It commands. 

As character codes 128-255 are used 
for graphic commands and will not be 
present in Basic statements, this range 
of values can be used to store one- 
character values representing the fol- 
lowing commands. You can look at the 
values stored by doing some experimenta- 
tion with PEEKS after finding the pro- 
gram storage area in RAM. 
' 128 END 



129 YOR 


111 LSET 


213 = 




130 RESET 


172 RSET 


214 


131 SET 


173 SAVE 


215 SQN 


132 CLS 


174 SYSTEM 


216 INT 


133 CMP 


175 LPRINT 


217 ABS 


134 RANDOM 


176 DEF 


218 FRE 


135 NEXT 


177 POKE 


219 INP 


136 DATA 


178 PRINT 


220 POS 


137 INPUT 


179 CONT 


221 SQR 


138 DIM 


180 LIST 


222 RND 


139 READ 


181 LLIST 


223 LOG 


140 LET 


182 DELETE 224 EXP 


141 GOTO 


183 AUTO 


225 COS 


142 RUN 


184 CLEAR 


226 SIN 


143 IE 


185 CLOAD 


227 TAN 


144 RESTORE 


186 CSAVE 


228 ATN 


145 QOSUB 


187 NEW 


229 PEEK 


146 RETURN 


188 TAB 


230 CVI 


147 REM 


189 TO 


231 CVS 


148 STOP 


190 FN 


232 CVD 


149 ELSE 


191 USING 


233 EOF 


150 TRON 


192 VARPTR 234 LOC 


151 TROFF 


193 USR 


235 LOF 


152 DEPSTR 


194 ERL 


236 MKI$ 


153 DEFINT 


195 ERR 


237 MKS$ 


154 DEFSNG 


196 STRING? 238 MKD$ 


155 DEFDBL 


197 INSTR 


239 CINT 


156 LINE 


19% POINT 


240 CSNG 


157 EDIT 


199 TIME$ 


241 CDBL 


158 ERROR 


200 MEM 


242 FIX 


159 RESUME 


201 INKEY$ 


243 LEN 


160 OUT 


202 THEN 


244STR$ 


161 ON 


203 NOT 


245 VAL 


162 OPEN 


204 STEP 


246 ASC 


163 FIELD 


205 + 


247 CHR$ 


164 GET 


206- 


24S LEFTS 


165 PUT 


207 * 


249 RIGHT* 


166 CLOSE 


208/ 


250 MIB$ 


167 LOAD 


209 T 


251 




168 MERGE 


210 AND 


252 




169 NAME 


211 OR 


253 


? 


170 KILL 


212 > 


254 
255 





(Decimal 17129) during power-up init- 
ialization. 

Using Small Systems Software's RSM1-S 
machine-language monitor, I was able 
to find that there are 9 "LD HL, (40A4)" 
references in the Level n ROM. 

Assuming that the TRS-80 DOS would 
probably require relocation of the "start 
of program" pointer and that was why 
Level n routines referred to a pointer 
that could be easily changed, I ran a test 
using Poke from the keyboard and changed 
this pointer to refer to an "end of program" 
statement. 

I then issued a List and received back 
a Ready message indicating that Level H 
did not think that there was a program 
in the machine. 1 then issued a Cload 
for a short subroutine that had been kept 
on tape. 

After the Cload completed I issued 
another List and received the complete 
subroutine listing, Using Poke again, I 
replaced the original "start of program" 
pointer, issued List and this time received 
back both the original program and the 
"Appended" subroutine. 

To facilitate Appending programs, the 
following short Basic program was de- 
veloped; 

1 Cl&PKSNT PEEK (1$54S); " " '.PEEK 
(16548): E=17129 

2 S"=E:E=PEEKS(S+1)*256+PEEK(S): 
IF E>0 GOTO 2 

3 POKE 16549,INT(S/256):POKE 16548 
S-INT(S/256)*256:END 

To Append a program or subroutine 
(line numbers should not conflict with 
the program already in storage) the fol- 
lowing procedure should be followed: 

1) Key in the above program. 

2) Issue Run. 

3) Save the PRTNTed Peek addresses 
(they should be 66 233). 



4) Issue the Cload to bring in the Basic 
code to be Appended. 

5) From the keyboard issue: Poke 16549, 
66: Poke 16548,233. 

6) Issue List to check out your new 
combined program. 

—From Orange County TRS-80 News- 
letter. 



More 'goodies' 

are hidden 

in Level I Basic 

In reference to Edgar Loutit's TRS-80 
Level I "Goodies" article on page 16 of 
issue 1:1, please note that the Level I 
manual explains (on page 46) that FOR- 
NEXT loops can be stopped by any WHOLE 
number (there's a built-in integer function 
in Level I ROM). 

Boolean Algebra (the mathematical base 
for computer switching circuits) uses the 
arithmetic multiplication sign (•) the rais- 
ed dot) and the arithmetic addition sign 
(+) as logical operators. The logical con- 
nective for expressing the AND function 
is the multiplication sign while the ad- 
dition sign denotes the OR function. 

The relational operators form the log- 
ical NOR and Exclusive-OR functions. 
Level n really confuses things by allowing 
the use of the words "AND", "OR" and 
"NOT". 

I also believe that it's important to in- 
form readers that neither Level I nor Lev- 
el n Basic ROM will support lowercase... 
they must write their own software (or 
buy it). 

—RICHARD E, DOUGLAS, Rte. 2, box 
149D, Clewiston FL 33440 



Columbus commuter computer 
uses TRS-80 disk system 



—Reprinted from Orange County TRS-80 
Users' Group Newsletter. 



An Ohio radio station used a TRS-80 com- 
puter to help find rides for some of the 
30,000 stranded by a bus system shut- 
down. 

When transport workers recently struck 
the Central Ohio Transit Authority, Col- 
umbus radio station WNC1 launched apro- 
gram to aid car pooling. 

"After the first morning," according to 
WNCI news director Stan Broadway, "it 
became apparent that there had to be a 
better way than the stacks of paper we'd 
accumulated." 

A call to Radio Shack's Columbus office 
resulted in the loan of a TRS-80 system, 
and store manager William H. Louden 
modified a customer information program 
to put the WNCI/Radio Shack Car Pool 
Computer program into operation, 

"Thanks to Louden' s program, we were 
able to enter driver volunteers, their ad- 
dress, telephone number and zip codes of 
origination and destination, and other in- 
formation," Broadway said. "When a per- 



son needing a ride called, we then quickly 
matched them up with someone close by, 
going to roughly the same destination, 

"As an example of how well the comput- 
er itself worked, we first entered the list of 
riders we had on waiting, and that immed- 
iately produced six links we had simply 
overlooked. 

"We think the program was able to ac- 
complish a very important task, and we're 
indebted to the quick reaction from Rad- 
io Shack's people here in helping us, and 
in turn helping the city of Columbus," 
Broadway continued. "We are considering ' 
launching a real computerized car pool 
promotion, setting up permanent car pools 
to help in conservation and traffic redact- • 
ion in the future," he said. i 

The TRS-80 microcomputer system is < 
manufactured and sold by Radio Shack 
stores and dealers, nationwide, and is 
suitable for a wide variety of business, ed- 
ucational and home applications. 

Radio Shack is a division of Tandy Cor- 
poration (NYSE). 



carpool 
program 



WNCI / RADIO SHACK BUS STRIKE INFO PROGRAM 
WRITTEN FOR WNCI RADIO 
BY BILL LOUDEN PHONE (614) 836-3060 
THIS PROGRAM IS A QUICK MODIFICATION OF AN 
EXISTING MAILISG/IKFO PROGRAM : SOKE STATEMENTS 
ARE NOT NECESSARY IN THIS ADAPTATION. BASED ON 
A 16K RAM DUAL DISK SYSTEM. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

S 

6 

7 

10 CLS 

20 CLEAR 500 

2 5 OPEN "R",1,"HNCI/FIL:I" 

26 FIELD 1,5 AS Z0$,5 AS ZD$,25 AS N$,25 AS A1S.2S AS A2$, 

12 AS PS, 2 AS RS.8AS Tl$,8 AS T2$ 

27 IF Wl-99 THBN RETURN 
30 GOTO 1000 

50 SS-LOF(l) 

51 SS-SS+1 
55 CLS 

60 NA$-"":INPUT "ENTER THE NAME" (HAS: LSETN$=NAS 

61 SA$»" n : INPUT "ENTER THE STREET ADDRESS" i SA$: LSETA1 $-SA$ 

62 ZZ$*"": INPUT "ENTER THE CITY " ;ZZ$; I.SETA2$«ZZ$ 

63 Zl$»""i INPUT"BNTER THE ORIGINATING ZIP COPE" ;Z IS: 
LSETZ0$"=Z1$: IFLEN(Z1$><>5 THEN 63 

64 Z2$»"":INPUT"ENTER THE DESTINATION ZIP COPE"s22$: 
LSETZDS-Z2S: IFLEN(Z2 $ ) <>5THEN64 

70 PH$=»"": INPUT "ENTER THE PHONE P" ; PH$: LSETP$-PH$ 
80 R1X=0: INPUT"KNTER THE AMOUNT OF RIDERS";R1%: 

LSETRS»MKI$(R1X) 
90 TO$-"":LINEI.NPUT"ENTER THE MORNING DRIVE TIME"sTO$: 

LSET T1S-T0$ 
100 TD$-"":LINEINPUT"£NTER THE EVENING DRIVE TIME"jTDSj 

LSET T2S=TD$ 
110 A$-"" 

120 INPUT "IF INFORMATION IS GOOD PRESS ESTER. IP A 
MISTAKE HAS MADE ENTER 'BAD'"; AS: IF 
A$-"SAD"THEN GOTO 55 

170 PUT I,SS 

171 SS-SS+1 
180 GOTO 1000 
500 CLS:RT*99 

510 INPUT "ENTER THE MORNING ZIP" ;Z 1 S: IFLES(ZI $><>5 

THEN 5 00 
515 INPUT"EHTER THE EVENING ZIP" ;Z2$: IFLEH(Z2$)o5THE»500 
520 FIELD 1,5 AS Z0$,5 AS ZD$, 87 AS DUMMYS.2 AS IS, 

16 AS DUMMY $ 
555 IF RR-99 THEN 575 
575 FOR XX-1 TO LOF (I) 

580 GET l,XX:Rl%»CVI(R$)s INSERT INTO 581 'AND 2iZ>0 I' 
TO CHECK IF ROOM IS LEFT 

581 IP Z0$*=Z1$ AND ZDS»Z2S THEN 590 

582 NEXT : CLS : PRINT "NO ZIP CODE MATCH FOUND" 

583 GOTO 620 

590 GOSUB5030:INPUT"IS THIS MATCH OK < YBS OR NO )";C1S: 
IFU1S-"N0"THEN 582 ELSE R1%=R 1%-I i IFR1 %<0 THERR1Z-0 
600 LSETR$*MKI$(RU):»1«99:PUT1,XX 
611 IF RE-99 THEN RETURN 
620 PRINT 
630 PRINT 
635 AS-"" 
640 INPUT"TYPE - GO - FOR NEXT ENTRY. PRESS ENTER TO 

RETURN TO INDEX" ;AS 
650 RR-0 

660 IF A$o"GO" THEN 1000 
670 RR-99 : AS-"" : GOTO SOO 
1000 CLS 

1010 0Q«140:DS"=STRINC$(60,QQ) 
1020 PRINT 
1030 PRINT DS 
1040 PRINT TAB(10)"NNCI / TRS-80 CAR POOL INFORMATION 

LIST 1 ' 
1050 PRINT DS 
1060 PRINTTAB(5) "WRITTEN BY BILL LOUDEN RADIO SHACK 

WAREHOUSE STOP.E" 
1065 PRINTD$:PRINTI?340, "PHONE : 836-3060 "s PRINTD8 
1070 PRINT "DO YOU WISH TOi" 

1080 PRINT " 1) CREATE A NEW ENTRY" 

1090 PRINT " 2) MATCR ZIP CODES" 



1121 

1122 

1125 
1126 
1127 
1130 
1140 
1145 
1150 
1190 
1200 
2000 
2010 
2015 
2020 
2025 
"2030 
5010 
5030 
5031 
5032 
5033 
5034 

5035 
5039 
5040 
5050 
5060 
5100 
5110 
5120 
5130 
5140 
5150 
5160 
5170 
5175 
5180 
5190 
5200 
5205 
5210 
5215 
5220 
5222 
5230 
5235 
5400 
5405 
5410 
5415 
5420 
5430 
5435 
5600 
5605 
5610 
5615 
5620 
5622 
5625 
5630 
5635 
5640 
5645 
7000 

7001 



7002 

7003 
7005 

7020 
7022 
7025 

7030 
7040 
7050 
7060 
7070 
7080 
7085 
7090 
8000 

8001 

9000 

9010 



PRINT 
PRINT 



3) PRINT COMPLETE LIST TO TV" 

4) PRINT COMPLETE LIST TO 
PRINTER" 

5) SEARCH FILES" 
6> TO EDIT FILE" 
7) END PROGRAM." 



PRINT " 

PRINT " 

PRINT " 

PRINT D$ 

INPUT "ENTER YOUR CHOICE BY ITS NUMBER" ;CHOICE 

IF CH0ICE<1 THEN 1000 

ON CHOICE GOTO 50,500,2000,7000,5100,9000,1200 
GOTO 1000 
CLOSE •. END 

CLS 5 FOR XX-1 TO LOF(l) 
GET t,XX!RU«CVI(R$):RT»99;GOSCl 5030 
FOR A-ITO ISOsNEXTA 
NEXT 

INPOT"PRESS ENTER";A$ 
GOTO 1000 
FOR SS»1 TO L0F(1) 
PRINTD$:' PRIIIT RO^TISE 

FRXNTN$;TAB(30)"ORIG. ZIP :" ;Z»S;TA*< 48>"TIME " ; T 1 * 
?RINTA1$;TAB(30>"DEST. ZIP :• jZDS ;TA5 ( 48)"TIME " jT2i 
PRINTA2$;" "(TABOO)" IX9EKS : •;11Z 
PR1NT"PH0NE f "?S;TA»<50)*Fll.I * :";:IF XX-0 PRINTSS 

ELSE-PRIKTXI 
IF RE-99 RBTE8S 
PRINTD$:1F RT-99 \ZZZ3.S 
NEXT 

INPUT "PRESS ESTE1 ZZ IS" III TO KE»T";T$ 
GOTO 1000 
CLS 

PRINT DS 

PRINT "DO TOC StSl T2 SSA1CX =SI»6 THE:" 
PRINT" I) MUIIG ZIP CODE" 

PRINT" 2) ETE«I»G ZIP CODE" 

PRIST" 3) tAST NIKE* 

PRINT DS 

INPUT "ESTE3L TOW CHOICE ST ITS NDlttEK'jO. 
U1.99:GOSW2tsITq>3 THE» 5100 
ON Q GOTO 5200, S4O0, 5600, 5100 
GOTO SI 00 
CLS 

INPrr 'ZWZti -EE CEARACTERS TO BE SEARCHED FOR";L$ 
LL-LEK1S1 
FOR SS-! TO -~T'l) 
GET !,SS 

if lefts :::,;: =:s then rt-99:Gosub 5030 

NEXT 

GOTO 5?5: 

CLS 

IN7TT 1--X- :-" :2A?.ACTER(S) TO BE SEARCHED F0R";L$ 



05 
to 
a 

< 

>> 



:"J.7 ACTER<S) TO BE SEARCHED F0R"iL$ 



TEEN 5640 



Foi •■■. :: ::t : 
get :,£ = 

ifzds-ls :=■■ ' " » ?9:gosub 5o30:goto5050 
■EXT ss:t:: : 

CLS 

I»fOT "BTI' r-- 

LL-LIBffcS 

for ss-i r: li- 
get l.SS 
F0* Z-1TOLIS »; . 

if mtf(*s,z,v>' 

NEXT Z.SS 

GOTO SOSO 

XI ■»$(«*, Z+l,M.>«L» TRES RT-99-.COSCB 5030 

EEEX SS:C*I»50SO 

CI.Ssr»r*»:WI*T:P»I*TjPRI»T;I»P»T"REABT PRINTER ... 
PRESS OTX**;Al» 

If ?IXE(1*312)>127 THEN CLS:F0RP1- 1TO 1 5: PRIRTI3320, 

" *ss«I»TCaiS<23)*I.IME FEXKTEt NOT READY":F0RA-1 

tOi»:Mjar A:CLS:EEXTPUGOT0800D 

FOR SS-lTOLOrO) 

DS-ST«I»6S<*D,*5) 

LPRI»T-1AME*;TA»(30)"MOR«ISG ZIP"; 

IA»(50)"ETMI1SG ZIP" 

GET l.SS 

LPIIET DJ 

LPRIBT'MXE # : *;SS 

LPRINT«StTAI(3C)ZOS;TAB<50)ZD$ 

LPRIHTA1S;IAB<30)TIS;TAB(50)T2S 

LPRINT A2$ 

LPRINT P$;TAB<30}"RIDERS"jRIt 

LPRINT D$:LPR1»T DS 

NEXT 

D$-STRINGS(60, 140) 

GOTO 1000 

CLS:INPUT"DO WISH OUTPUT OH SCREEN ... YES OR NO . 

;CH$ 

IF CHS«"YES" THENRT-99:F0RSS-1T0 L0F< 1) jGETI.SSt 

GOSUB5030lNEXTSS.:GOT0 5050 ELSE GOTO 1000 

CLS:INPUT"ENTER PILE t TO BE CHANGED "jtF: 

IF PF>LOP(l) THEN9000 

W1-99!G0S0B26:GET t, FF : SS-FP: GOTO 5S 



3 
►J 

a 

CO 
09 

m 

»* 

M 
O 

x> 



O 

iz 

*-* 
» 

s 

o 

V 

o 
tc 
I 
i» 

K 
E- 



a 


From Z56- 


•11 






<ti 

3 

m 


Sr— ^ 




9 \ 


~7j wz\j — — *- 

'^VlJ —I —^To Z72-12 


ta 


^ /0 '2 


4 

Z9 

« a 


tj 


? 




<? ) Ui 


-*""" 1 // 


6 


*** 


" r-o^ 








4 




v^l 








tt> 














From Z56-8 








U2,U1=SN74LS02 














Z9-SN74LS74 



Here T s better way 
to speed up clock 

In Steve Gibson's article on speeding up 
the TRS-80, I found one error. Step 5 
should be pin '11' not pin 12 of ICZ56. I 
found this works but the memory hangs 
2 up whenever you switch speeds, (Also, 
© step 6, pin 14 of Z56, not Z43..,Ed;) 
«jj I made the following changes (see Fig- 
ure 1) and found I can load a tape at one 
<J speed, switch speed (when processor is 
O Idle) and run at the other speed. This allows 
^ me to load my slow speed tapes, switch 
s> speeds and generate high speed tapes. Ai- 
ds so, it allows me to continue to swap tapes 
tt with my friends, 
— The mod is as follows; 
j 1. I you use Z7 on the processor, care- 
fully Cot and separate the following pin 
a oanectkm 104102,13, 
* i. C* trace going from Z56-8 to Z72-12 



as JcwuMwil hi Steve Gibson's article-; 
^ 9. Add jwyer from Z43-2 to Z56-14. 
,3 4. Wire rest of circuit per diagram. 
— 5. Connect "CI pins 2,3,5 and 6 to 7. 

K You now have a circuit that will run at 
o one speed or the other, without losing 
•^ the program in memory. 

-HENRY BARTMAN, 12 Stage Coach 
rtL, Windsor CT 06095 



Wants 4 MHz 
clock speed 

l nave recently read about your service in 
an issue of Interface Age. I own a TRS-80 
and am interested in performing hard- 
ware modifications to the unit, I have al- 
ready installed Level n and 16K myself, 
and as per the article I read, would like 
to re-install Level L have lowercase let- 
ters, etc. 

One thing which I am particularly in- 
terested in performing, which I have not 
heard anyone doing as yet, is to replaoe 
the crystal, the CPU and do whatever 
else is necessary to speed up the unit to 
4MHz. I was wondering if you have any 
such information on this type of a modifi- 
cation and if not, may I recommend that 
someone take on such a project, as I am 
sure there will be quite a number of 
people interested in performing such a 
modification. 

—Joseph Boykto, Ohio State University, 
Department of Psychology, 217N E. 
Stadium, 404C W. 17th ave., Columb- 
us OH 43210 



BETTER CLOCK SPEEDUP- 
Diagram shows Henry Bartman's 
approach, which allows speed- 
up without loss of program in 
memory. TRS-80 Computing 
tested it, and has not gotten it 
going. Proceed at own risk 
{but it was easy to restore 
circuit. ED) 

Expansion error 
for , D t boards 

I believe there is an error on p. 10 TRS-80 
Computing, Vol, 1, No. 1, concerning 16K. 

memory expansion "Here's how to expand 
TRS-80 memory to 16K?'. 

If the Jumpers are installed as dia- 
grammed, the memory on my Level n 
"0" series board will not clear. 

I picked up an expansion kit from "Jade 
Computer Products" which incidentally 
has identical instructions as per the above- 
mentioned article. 

The memory upgrade will work if you 
change the jumpers to match the diagram 
on page 15, Vol. 1, No. 2 (the Level H 
ROM upgrade), I know the Level E 16K 
diagram is correot— the Level 1 16K ap- 
pears to be correot— but I don't know for 
sure. 

—DOUG A. KOPESO, 3970 Gloria In., 
Carlsbad CA 92008 

Video checkers 
on cassette 

Compu-Quote of Canoga Park, California 
has converted its popular video checkers 
to TRS-80 16K Level H. The new cas- 
sette produces complete checkerboard 
graphics. 

The game is played conforming to 
international rules. As the player and the 
computer take turns, the checkers blink 
and move to indicate passage. Kinged 
pieces are identified on the display and 
messages appear at the right of the board 
relating to each move. In accordance with 
international rules of the game, the pro- 
gram will not accept illegal moves and 
warns of their entry. 

Video checkers may be ordered for 
$14.95 from Compu-Q^iote, 6914 Berquist 
ave., Canoga Park CA 91307. Specify 
TRS-80 version. 



Lowercase mod 
story errs 

Apparently, someone did not check the 
modifications listed to the 1:1 edition, 
"Here's a fix for Level n lowercase"; be- 
cause, as presented, the fix does not work! 

On the logic drawing on page 29, Qis re- 
set high during normal BASIC operation. 
But, in that case, pin 13 of Z25 (a positive- 
OB/nsgative-AND gate) is enabled and so 
the normal RS character set does not ap- 
pear. In other words, swap the connections 
to pins 1 and 13_on Z25. 

Secondly, if Q is high during BASIC op- 
eration, then a 1 (not ad as the text states) 
must be strobed to through the D-toput to 
make the flip-flop toggle, to other words, 
enable the lowercase mod by sending 1$ 
(hex) to port FF— not (hex)! 

Lastly, the procedure given to isolate 
the unusedVby-SS pins on Z25 may not be 
complete. On my machine, ptos 2 and 13 
are connected by an invisible and inacces- 
sible track on the component side of the 
PCB, beneath the IC. A possible (but 
nasty) solution is to cut either pin 2 
or pin 13 and lever it clear of the PCB 
before connecting to it, but this puts a 
lot of mechanical stress on the IC. A 
better solution might be to use the spare 
gate in Z73— but beware; Ihaven't checked 
for hidden tracks there. 

I hope that this correction will save 
someone the several hours that it took me 
to unravel the problem and make the fix 
work. 

The peculiar lowercase character-set 
could probably be rectified by changing 
Z29 (MCM 6670) to something like an MCM 
6570, but I haven't tried this. 

—MARTIN TOBIAS, 8290 N. Federal 
blvd,, #100, Westminster CO 80030 



Lowercase code 
needs Poke 

I Just finished my second installation of 
Dan Liken' s lowercase modification as 
given to TRS-80 Computing, 1:1. 

The first installation didn't work using 
Tim Mann's Basic software given to 1:2, 
so I thought I'd gotten a bad 2102 RAM. 

On the second installation, I used the 
switch Suggested by Tim Mann, With the 
switch I was able to read my diagnostics 
to English instead of control character 
language. 

Initially, the second installation didn't 
work either. After beating my brain for a 
long time I finally remembered something 
about read-data statements giving pro- 
blems in some computers, as mentioned to 
Tim Hensler's article to 1:1. 

People with these problems must pre- 
cede Mann's Basic software by a POKE 
16553,255 or by a 16553,128, It is conven- 
ient to make this Line 5 of Mann's software. 
I suggest always using the POKE 16553, 
128 because the read-data problem is 
sometimes difficult to detect and it need 
not occur on every power-up. 

-JOHN P. RAHN, 1019 Randall, Ridge- 
crest CA 93S55 



Critique: user discusses problems with disk system 



(The following letter to Radio Shack brings 
up some Interesting points. Ed.) 

I currently have a 32K TRS-80 with one 
disk. 1 would like to describe some pro- 
lems I have had, and am having. Further, 
I would like to make some recommend- 
ations as to documentation, enhancements 
etc. for both software and hardware. 

APPEND DOESN'T WORK 

I believe you are aware of this problem 
with disk Basic, version two, although you 
failed to mention It in your newsletter 
recently, or when we might expect It to be 
fixed. 

BACK-UP 

1 have a single disk system, and when I 
attempt to back-up a diskette which has 
files located past track 29, I can suc- 
cessfully back-up the diskette to track 29 
and when it encounters track 30, 1 get the 
destination error message (destination 
disk read error). I have tried a different 
disk unit and have had the interface unit 
in the repair center. I have tried num- 
erous diskettes for both the sending and 
receiving diskette, I have used another 
user's TBS-DOS and the failure continues. 
I now believe the problem is software or 
possibly the interface which the repair 
center Is operating satisfactorily. HELP!! 

OTHER PROBLEMS 

Tape is such a problem, I refuse to use 
It at all. The problems are well-known by 
your staff, 1 am sure, as they are re- 
ceiving wide circulation in the trade press, 

Ihe power plug going into the TRS-80 is 
identical to the video and tape plug. They 
are interchangeable and are not even col- 
or coded. I made an error and plugged the 
power into the tape jack and it was costly. 
I believe you have a design problem— at 
the minimum you should have color-coded 
the plugs, cables and reoeptacle. 

When loading programs In disk Basic, 
I have had several experiences of receiv- 
ing a message that indicated "INTERNAL 
ERRORS", I would find the program dam- 
aged. What is causing these errors, and 
what can be done to fix them? 

When saving programs with disk Basic, 
I note on rare occasions, reloading them. 



that some of the statement numbers were 
changed and in an incorrect location in the 
program i.e. not In sequential order. 
Why? 

The system also has a tendency to auto 
reset during operation of disk Basic. 
Funny? Could be power, but I am not cer- 
tain. 

DOCUMENTATION 

The Level II manual is not organized in 
the same alphabetic command fashion as 
the well-Written "Level I Manual" was, and 
is cumbersome to use as a result. The 
summary of commands does not have page 
references or in the alternative, an Index 
with page numbers would be nice. 

The DOS preliminary manual Is not at 
all adequate. It is lacking In organization 
and In depth. 

In the area of DOS it is important to 
know how the directory is being handled, 
where it resides on the system diskette, 
whether it is maintained in memory or is 
retrieved from the diskette each time it is 
required. 

It would also be nice to know what com- 
mands can be issued from DOS only, and 
which commands can be Issued from disk 
Basic only, and which commands can be 
issued from either. 

That brings me to another point, it sure 
would be nice to be able to display the dir- 
ectory when you are in disk Basic mode. 
What is needed I feel, is two sets of pub- 
lications. One at a concepts, facilities 
and functions level, and a second one at an 
in-depth level, 

I would also like to know the functions of 
the system disk files, by filename. Maybe 
I do not need all of them. I would also like 
to know what is the memory mapping when 
you are in DOS mode and when you are in 
disk Basic mode? These questions need 
addressing so that the user can feel com- 
fortable in using the system. 

COMPATIBILITY 
Something fell through the cracks when 
the machine language programs (I have the 
assemble/editor and the conversion pro- 
grams) were not designed to be compat- 
ible with the disk Basic, and therefore can- 
not be stored on the diskette. Someone did 



to 

not know what someone else was doing, it<a 
would appear. Are these problems going"* 
to be fixed?? When?? w 

The conversion program and document-** 
ation should have warned people that they t. 
must define the variables as Integers in ° 
Level II, and further, that the "A" array 
would have to be dimensioned. This could" 
have easily been done In the conversion** 
documentation. 



DISKETTE MANAGEMENT 



How is diskette fragmentation handled? 
What are its impacts on the user? Is there 
a compress program in the mill if it is 
needed? When might we expect it? 

It would be nice to have the track ad- 
dresses on the directory listing. Can we 
expect that? If so, when?" 

What about the aforementioned ability to 
display the directory from disk Basic In- 
stead of jumping back and forth? The 
amount of free space would be helpful as 
well from Basic, 



ENHANCEMENTS 

A generalized sort program (disk) for 
files of over 200 records is needed, as the 
memory sorts require too much time for 
these long sorts, I would suggest a key 
sort with the capability to merge the var- 
ious strings of keys as is done by many 
disk sorts , 

It would be easier to design and prevent 
re-programming down the road If we knew 
what your future plans were as it relates 
to both hardware and software. I would 
think you could publish this as a letter of 
intention and avoid any commitments, but 
provide necessary long-range guidance to 
the users, 

I would suggest you people investigate 
the use of both, sides of the diskette, as is 
possible with the Pertec unit, 

I would suggest you investigate double 
minis like the Mtcropolis units If you are 
to maintain the leadership you have estab- 
lished. 

When can we expect the next release of 
DOS and what Hill be different? 

-NAME WITHHELD 



co 
to 
o 
at 

05 
< 

O 

» 

K 



Disenchanted with 
Radio Shack 

in October 1977 I purchased a TRS-80 4K 
and subsequently updated to 16K n with 
expansion module. The experience has left 
me disenchanted with Radio Shack: non- 
confirmed ship dates, long wait periods, 
non-existent practical software, a non- 
existent S-100 interface (announced mon- 
ths ago) and a keyboard that persistently 
Enters, at its whim and fancey, multiple 
characters per singular manual keystroke. 

In no manner has the TRS-80 been as 
colorful as the advertising and perform- 
ance equaled promises. 

It is not a business-applications "total" 
system and its inability to accept lower- 



case alpha, renders it quite useless as a 
word-processing system. Quite naturally, 
these deficiencies will cost extra (such as 
the parallel to parallel "cable" for the 
printers) at some future time. 

-R.C. MAXWELL, box 94, Salem XH 
03079 

Program catalog 
from Lasman 

Jeff Lasman's Practical Applications, 
software house offers a catalog of TRS-80 
games, education, engineering, and busi- 
ness applications. 

For a copy, write Jeff Lasman's Prac- 
tical Applications, Box 4139, Foster City, 
CA 94404. 



Has built 
remote control 



o 

i-t 

Eh 

C3 



Just to let you know of some accomplish- g 
ments, Level I/n mod., and lowercase o 
have been successful, and also have in- o 
stalled a remote keyboard that parallels 
the TRS-80 keyboard in front of the en- <» 
coder with total success, » 

M 

X 
I am typing on an IBM computer term-,, 

inal Selectric that has an inverted key- 
board (upper- lowercase switched) that I ' 
am hoping to interface to my TRS-80, © 
—DAVE WOOD, DEW Enterprises, 917^ 
W. Colorado ave., Colorado Springs, 
CO 80905 






Bogota reader 
wants programs 

We have various models of the TRS-fcJ 
here, most of them 16K Level I, but some 
few 16K Level II, too. 

We are needing a maximum of possible 
programs written for these micro-compu- 
ters, and we are willing to pay generous- 
ly. 

Right now we urgently need general led- 
ger and accounting programs, but more 
and more we'll be needing special applica- 
tions' software. 

So,- if you feel that you could be of any 
help to us, we kindly invite you to drop us 
a line or send us a catalog or any other by 
airmail. Any expenses you might incur in, 
be positively sure that we will send you a 
check in US funds, or cash right away. 

— Rcpohl F, Eckhard, gen. mgx„ Alect- 
ronic Ltda., Calle 63 No. 11-45, Bog- 
ota, Colombia 



Interested in 



CO 

to 
o 

CM 
OS 

< 

O 
>> 

K 



3 









Likes absence 

of games 

Enclosed is my check for a one-year sub- 
scription to your publication. 

My primary reason for subscribing is 
the absence of games and graphics rou- 
tines in your first issue, I am hoping this 
is an indication oi the content of future 
issues, 

I have absolutely no quarrel with those 
who prefer to use the computer for that 
purpose, as I firmly believe the owner's 
first option is his enjoyment, and it should 
suit Ms personal use, whatever the pur- 
pose. 

While I do appreciate complete, ready- 
to-run utility progr a ms, I am also quite 
interested in collecting sophisticated sub- 
routines that I can use to increase the ef- 
ficiency and/or the capability of my own 
programs. 

—MAURICE L. DYER, 3110 Tawny Oak 
dr., San Antonio TX 78230 



Problems with 
TV interference 

We have a problem of T.V. interference. 

Our T.V. reception gets so bad that 
it makes it impossible to watch half 
of our channels. I would appreciate any 
information you can get out on that. 

I am really glad to see the TRS-80 
becoming so popular^ My husband has 
just installed a 16K kit we received 
from "Microcomputer System's, Inc." in 
Florida at a cost of $125 (we kept the 
-tK> and Radio Shack Level U. 

it's a little more than we can act- 
ually handle yet, but with practice we 
hapt to put all that computer power 
*» iwfck. I am personally interested in 
^i^i— is aimed at teaching children. 
«y S y**r old loves " Mica" , our TRS-80) . 
' J. McCAW, Box 199 
Boston IL 61272 



ham radio 

As a computer hobbyist, amateur radio 
operator, and professional Systems Anal- 
yst, I'm very much interested in learning 
more about micro-computing. 

Although I have nearly 12 years of 
experience in Systems and programming 
on large computers (currently a 4- Mega- 
byte Amdahl 470/V6 running IBM's MVS 
operating system), I'm just beginning to 
leant how powerful micro-computers are. 
I'm always looking for new programming 
hints and "tricks" as well as finding eut 
what ocher people are doing with both 
software and hardware. 

I currently own a 16K Level II TRS-80 
which was just recently upgraded from 
a 4K Level I machine. I also have Radio 
Shack's "T-Buf* margin* language mon- 
itor and their Editor/ Assembler. 

In addition to some educational pro- 
grams for my children, and games for 
the whole family, I'm hoping to even- 
tually use it with my amateur radio 
station to send and receive CW and 
RTTY. I'm also currently working on my 
own Tiny Pilot interpreter, and I'm inter- 
ested in a PASCAL compiler/interpreter. 

—DICK KRAMER, WB9PVW, 401 N. 
Cherry st„ Abingdon IL 61410 . . 

Some hope of 
functional system 

Having entered the world of TRS-80 Com- 
puting in total ignorance, and three months 
and over a thousand dollars later, I 
still have an incomplete system. (I'm 
still waiting for delivery of a Level H 
conversion.) 

After reading your introductory news- 
letter, there seems to be some hope 
of turning this system into a functional 
computer at a somewhat more reason- 
able cost and a more flexible manner 
than through Radio Shack's peripherals. 

I'm interested in using my TRS-80 to 
do some word-processing and would like 
to have all the information available to 
make the necessary conversions. 

-JOHN ALLEN JANSEN, 1544 Cochran 
ave., Los Angeles CA 90019 

Combine Level n, 
two-chip Level I? 

In regards to the article by Dan LIMns on 

the switch from Level I to Level Et, did he 

say If there is a way to switch if you have 

the two-chip Level I ia the machine? 

-DAVE WOOD, DEW Enterprises, 917 

W. Colorado ave;, Colorado Springs 

CO 80906 

(To use atwo-chip Level I with a three-chip 
Level IL you need two of (hose Mickey 
Mouse boards, one for the Level I and the 
other usually associated with Level H. 
We've heard that some people are doing it, 
but any imagined- or real power supply 
problem with the Level I/H conversion 
would be aggravated by a two-chip Level! 
rig. We would recommend the Apparat 
Level I in Level IL instead. Ed.) 



Radio Shack 
offers fixes 

By JEFF LASMAN 
Pres., Practical Applications 
Radio Shack has just made three import- 
ant announcements for TRS-80 owners. 
Unfortunately, the announcements have 
been made only to store managers, so we 
repeat them here. 

1) Radio Shack has a fix for your DOS. sys- 
tem if it automatically re-boots into DOS 
from the middle of Basic without you want- 
ing it to. This fix is available at no charge 
to end users, though the m anagers have 
to pay for it, and probably won't bring it 
to your attention unless you ask them for 
it. Not all disk systems are affected, but 
if yours is, the fix is a lifesaver. 

2) Radio Shack has a board installation 
fix for the CPU unit if you have contin- 
uous tape-loading problems. Won't do any 
good for occasional problems, but if yours 
is one of those TRS-80 Level n comput- 
ers that just doesn't reliably load tape, 
this fix, also at no charge for you if you 
ask for it, is now available. 

3) A new program tape with a keyboard 
"debounoe" routine and a routine enabling 
Level H users to use the clock without the 
disk system, is now available, free. Pro- 
gram tape #CT-0300. 

If your Radio Shack is not knowledgeable 
about these points, refer your manager to 
the bulletin sent out by Radio Shack. This 
is a white bulletin, and not the colored 
"Update" the managers are used to seeing, 
so some of them may have overlooked it. 
ASK! 

WANTS TRADE PROGRAMS 

I've 5een one issue of your publication and 
it looks great to me. As a suggestion, I'd 
like to see a copy of the dis-assembled 
Level II monitor, 
-RICHARD KORS, 119A Plynn ave.. 
Mountain View, CA 94043 

REVERSE VIDEO 
KIT AVAILABLE 

Parts and instructions for converting 
TRS-80s to switch-selectable reverse vid- 
eo is available for $6 from Dan Likens' 
Computer Control, 3001 Red Hill, bldg. 1, 
Costa Mesa CA 92626. 




Robert Purser 

lists programs 

In CIE TRS-80 Bulletin 1:4, a page of 
Robert Purser's computer cassette ref- 
erence list is reproduced. The following 
five pages complete that listing. A new, ex- 
panded list is due now from the publisher. 



Robert Elliott Purser's Reference List o* Computer Cassettes,. November 1978 



Page 6 



Apparat, Inc. 

6000 B. Inn Ay.., Blag, 2 
Denver, Colorado 80210 
O0» 758-72/J 



TRS Data 


Games 


TRS 


Acey-oucey 


vus 


Craps 


TBS 


Footo.ll 


TRS 


Coif 


TRS 


Guess the Number 


m 


Hammurabi 


TRS Hurkle 


TRS 


Life Expectancy 


TRS 


Lunar Lander 


TRS 


Mastermind 


TRS 


Reverse 


TRS 


Star Trek 


TRS 


Wumpus 


IR.V 


Horse Race 


TT?S 


Blackjack 


IRS 


Roulette 


TRS 


Oft* Arm Bandit 


TRS 


Backgammon 


IRS 


Basketball 


TRS 


Ski 


TRS 


Guess the Number 


TRS 


KJr»j 


TRS 


Biorhytrrot 


IRS 


Hangman 


investment Programs 



TRS Apartment Analysis 

TRS Stock Options 
TRS Ft™ 



Kitchen Programs 

TRS Mian Recipes 
*3RS Recipe Cost 
TRS (Met PYar^ir*; 

TRS Flight Simulator 

TRS Metric Conversions 

TRS Prim. Numbers 

TRS Hex Dump level IX 

TRS Target Practice 

TRS Data - Set Control Package Level I 

(Additional charges lor tape) 



Application Software 

TRSi Data - Set Control Package (or Piles S S.00 

TRSI Inventory Control Program 3 35.00 

TRSI Horoscope Casting S 10.00 

TRSI Horoscope citing lor printer S 10.00 

TRS] Personal Finance Package S 13.00 

TRS! Mortgage Calculations f 5.00 

TRS2 Level 1 ROM reloaded into RAM (I6K) S 15.00 

TRS2 Qubic - 3D TicTac-Toe $ 5.00 

TRSI Check Reconciliation Prog $ 5.00 

TRSI Apartment Analysis $ e.00 

(add $2.00 for cassette or $5.00 for diskette) 



AcadUna Software 
Route 3, Box 77* 
St. Martlnvllie, LA 70»2 

TRS ESPB Guidance Counseling Predicts Grades 
TRS Math Practices One 



»rlus 
South High 
West Chester, PA 19380 

TRS2 Bowting League Instant Statistic System 



G. Austin 
Box 258 

Pinehunt, Idaho 83850 
(208) 482.2720 

TRS2 Arrays <Matrlces> Mat-Inverse, Determ. 
TRS2 Text ReadebHUy-Vlasch Index 



**••*«**•+**« 



E. w. Barnes 

119 Skyline Dr. 
Piano, TX 7507* 

TRS Monthly Summarizer 



The Basic Business Software Co. 
P. O. Box 2032 
Salt take City, Utah 8*1 10 
(801) 363-1199 

TRSD Some Common Basic Programs 

-TRSO Software Pak « Statistics 

TRSO Software Pak *t Financial Calculator 

TRS2 Software Pak *» Financial Calculator 



••-00 

5.00 
5.00 



$ 1.00 
$ 2.00 
$ 3.00 



$ 20.00 
S 10.00 



$ 1S.95 



Beta Computer Corporation 
Allan E. Sitter, Ir. 
215 Parkway North 
Watertord, CT 0*385 
«031 (M-»3» 



S 7.00 
$ 7.00 



$ 9.95 



(Complete Business Systems) 



Fred Blechman Enterprises 
7217 Bernadine Ave. 
Canoga Park, CA 91307 
(213) 3*6-702<l 



Telephone Toll totalizer-Saves $$$ on toll calls 
invest or Save? - Is your money better off In a 

hank? 

Mortgage Loan - Tabulates principal and interest 
Interest Calculation - Daily, Monthly, quarterly 

or annual 
Pay Mow or Later? - For ooctors, lawyers or 

dentist bills 

Changlr$ Billboard - Advertise In window or on 

counter 

Digital clock - Replace your wrlrat watch 
Adding Machine - Replace your fingers A toes 
Simplified Bookkeeping - 12-column ledger totals 
Order Checking - v-column display St total 

(Any four programs for $7,957 



TRSI 
TRSI 



TRSI 
TRSI 



TRSI 

TRSI 

TRSI 
TRSI 
TRSI 



Bourrut Consulting Corporation 
2] Friendly Road 
Smilhtown, NY 11787 

TRS2 Expense Reporting System 

TftS)6:2 Backgammon 

TRSI&2 Space Trek 80 

TRSi&2 Astronomy Sight Reduction 



**»***#»** 



The Bottom Shelf, Inc. 
P. O- Box 49104 
Atlanta. CA 301)5 

TRS2 A Library of 100 Programs o; Tiny Pilot 

(add $2.00 tor postage It handling) 



$ 22.95 
$ 19.95 
$ 9.95 
$ 2*.95 



$ ".9.50 



■ «. I 

1915 Carter Ave. 
Baton Rouge, LA 70UH 

TRS2 Alphabetic FMch Card Patters for Knitting Looms 



6927 Atoi! Ave 

North Hollywood, CA 91*25 

TRS Hangman, 3C Tie-Tac-Toa 



Circle E nte rprises 
Allan E. Sitter, ]r. 

P. O. Box 5»6 
Grown, CT 063*0 
(203) »*6-]06a 

TRS1*2 Moving Signboard 
TRS2 File Handing (ISM 

TRS1&2 Loan Payment 

TRSIA2 Prime Ngmhers 

TRS1*2 Buzzword 

TRSIJtf Day of the Week 

TRS1A2 Hamurabf 

TRS1A2 Polution 

TRS 1*2 Tlc-Twc-Toe 

TRSIA2 Slot Machine 

TRSIA2 Petals Around Rose 

Business S ystems 

TRSI*2 Advanced Amway Distributor System 
TRS1*2 Streamlined Amway Distributor System 
TRSIS2 Amway SA-l/SA-2 Verification 



$ 10-00 



$119.95 
$ «9.95 
$ 3.93 



(all programs *K) 



Jim Clayton 
3520 S.E. Vineyard Rd. 
Milwaukie, OR 97222 
(503) S59-W88 Home 
003) 654-7767 Work 

TRSI 3* Cassettes full of programs for trade 
TRS2 3* Cassettes full of programs to trade 
TRSD Disks for trade 

(Will trade C-60 cassettes full of programs) 



„.<„■»•■■'».,■■ 



<D 
3 
tn 

03 
•r* 

<M 

v-l 

U 

«S 

in 

€r> 



George Clisham 
P. O. Box 1172 
Duxbury, HA 02332 

TRS2 Micro Tax 7! 



$ 9.99 



Cload House 

Box 521 

Mercer Uland, wA 980*0 

TRSI Space and War Games - SW I 

TRS2 Space and War Games - SW 

TRSi Random Chance Games - RC I 

TRS2 Random Chance Games - RC B 

TRS! Strategy and Number Games - SN 1 

TRS2 Strategy and Number Games - SN II 

TRS2 Morse Code Programs - MC n 

TRS2 Radio Shack Psychiatrist - RSP II 

TRS2 Battleship BSH-n 

TRS2 Star Trek STK-B 



CLOAD Magazine 
P. O. Box 1267 
Goleta, CA 93017 
(805) 944-2761 

TRSI&2 CLOAD Magazine 
TRSI&2 CLOAD Magazine 
TRS142 CLOAD Magazine 
TRSI CLOAD Magazine - 
TRSI CLOAD Magazine - 
TRSI CLOAD Magazine - 
TRS1*2 CLOAD Magazine 
TRS142 CLOAD Magazine 
TRS142 CLOAD Magazine 
TRS1S2 CLOAD Magazine 
TRS1*2 CLOAD Magazine 
TBS1H2 CLOAD Magazine 



(12 issues/yr) 

(6 issues) 

(single issue) 
March 1978 
April I97S 
May 1978 

- June 1978 

- July 1978 

- August 1978 

- September 1978 

- October I97S 

- November 1978 



$ 36-00 

$ 20.00 



3.50 
3.50 
3.50 
3.50 
3.50 
. 3.5Q 
$ 3,50 
$ 3.50 
$ 3.50 
$ 3.50 



(There Is no sales tax on subscriptions. 

CA residents add 6% sales tax for single copies. 

Mastercharge/Vrsa welcome.) 

,rtll,„teM„t«IIIH, 

Steve Coleman 

17 N. Main St. K.l 

Washington Crossing, PA 1S977 

TRS-SO Swap Club 

(Send $1 with your cassette to cover postage) 
»»***««***«+**«<»*' >»■■■ 

Commercial Micro Computing 
P. O. Box 8389 
Kno.wille, TN 379 1* 
(615) 546-5051 

TRSI Financial Computation P ack a ge t6K 

OIC/VTSW 



$ 29,95 



Corap-U^aaa 
9. O- Boa T0i! 

TerarM- WA 9»»«7 



a»i* B e rej mst Averue 

Cawoga Para, CA 91307 
ttLS. 3«4-J«*2 

TRS2 VM 



RawD-rl 

3Ut «2M St- MW « 

V I f i t l i.puC 

ota &j«9i 



$ 14.95 



Challenger 16K 
^smtilar to "Star Wars" «K 



TRS142 

TRS2 Sa 

TRS2 Ro 

TRSD 

TRSI 32 Oea-nsne-nsachine language «K 

TR5l*2 GrafSsk: Lunar Lander (vertical only) UK 



(VT5AJMC welcome; $1.00 shipping) 



CO 
<0 

O 

< 



03 

3 
k-1 



GO 

tn 



$ 11.95 

$ 6.95 

$ 9,95 

$ 12.95 

$ 3.95 

$ 6.95 



O 
s-i 

H 

3 



O 
Q 

o 

CO 

H 

I 



Next Edition Is In Mid February For tt.OO; Subscription Price Is $12,00 Per Yearj Post Box $66, El Dorado, CA 95623 



Robert Elliott Purser's Reference List ofCo.hpoter Cassettes, Hovember 1978 Page 7 



n 



r-1 



The computer Horary 

John Lincoln 

Box sm 

Nowburgh. NY 12530 

TRS2 Elijah the Psychiatrist 
TRS Checker* 

TftSl*2 Statistics - 5 programs 
TRS2 Stock Market Forecasting 



(Special Otter; All 13 programs...onty $19.95) 



iWHHWHtl 



Computer Complements Corp. 
1*7 Jericho Turnpike 
Floral Park, NY 11001 
()W) 775-J7O0 



W« M * l>«'H t>» «l l 



Computer Control 
J. Daniel LlWna Company 
500! Red Hlli Ave. Mdg. 1 
Costa Mesa, CA 92424 

TRS Original Fun ft Garnet Tapes 



Computer Contult*ms 
3(2 Hoyt Street 
Dunkirk, NY 1*0*S 



(Send SASE lor list) 

I* M»»H»H« 



Computer Systems Design 

P. O. Bo« 735 

Yakima, WA 9S907 
(509) 575-0320 

TRSD A/R 

TRSD A/P 

TR5D CPA General Ledger 

TRSO General Payroll 

TRSO Farm Payroll 

TRSD Job Cost 

TRSO Word Processing 



(3 systems mUv, MO, VISA, l*C only) 

eaeeoe*a« «*a*«« # iHi*ss«aa 



Computers One 
#306 Kahale Office Tower 
4211 Wauatae Ave. 
Honolulu, HI 94*16 
(«0S) 737-2933 



TRS1*2 Hustler series 2 - Genera! ledger SK 

TOS1*2 Hustler series 2 - Checking Account K 

TRSI42 Hustler series 2 . Rent Accounts 

TRS142 Hustler series 2 . Legal Diary 

TRSI42 Hustler series 2 - Trust Accoiaits 

aseaa eaeeas**** Mt 

Coeepu-Tese 

Don Catnmett 
Box 13511 

Sacramento, CA 95*13 

TRSI Computer-aided Handicapping 

(Source Hating 4 Guide available) 

•»«»♦ **■»»»»■« ■«■■■» » ■»» 



$ 21.95 
S 21.« 
S l»v»3 
S IS-vJ 
$ 1*.*S 



$ «MK) 



Computre« 
P. O. Bon 536 
Inman, SC 293*9 



C5 TRSI Lend Out 

_1^ (keep track of Items you have lent) 

TRS1 Itinerary (helps planning your trips) 

TRS1 Blotorecast-more advanced than biorhythm 

TRSI Orbit (a programs calculate orbits) 

TRS! Interstellar (predicts luture voyagesl 

(add $1.00 tor postage * handling) 



I 

H 
ft 

I 

o 

30 



i 
m 



The Computer Pantry 

222S-C Old Mlddielield Way 
Mountain Vie*, CA 9*0*3 
<*I5> 96*-a|»5 

TRS Cassette 8010 (4 dtfferent programs) 
TRS Cassette 4020 (6 different programs) 



9.50 
5.50 



F. Darter 

1**0 Alea Ho Dr. #23 

Alea, HI 94701 







Connan Enterprises 
350 Rye Beach Ave. 




TRS2 Spelling Bee (grades 24) 


$ 5.00 






Rye, NY 105*0 




JRS2 Programs tor trade 








mi 


Sc*ce Wat 1-wUI St in W; Ml graphics * 


, 9.95 


(send blank tape with money) 




S 

s 


5.95 

4.50 


TRS2 


Space War B-wili fit *K) lull graphics S 


; 9.95 


■ssaaeeeassessaaaeaeeeee 




$ i*.r? 












$ 


5.95 








ESAFW 








Contract Services Asaocsasaa 




Box «i! 








|J»6 W. Broad-ray 




Oakhurst, 143 07755 








Anaheim, CA 92*0* 












<?!«> 635-*0» 




TRS Horse Race 
TRS Keno 


S 10*0 
S 9;95 






TRS1 


ROM Error Check i 


i 3.95 


TRS Alpha-Graph (large Alpha/Numeric) 


S 9.93 






TR5I 


6 function Calculator i 


i 11.95 


TRS Match the Secures 


$ S.9J 






TRS2 


6 hjrrrnon Calculator * 


, 1/.95 


TRS Angle Shots 


% 9.95 






TRSI 


Loan Payment Computation * 


> 10.9) 










TRS2 


Loan Payment ComputatlQn * 


i 17.95 










TRS2 


bec-Oct-Hax Conversions * Arithmetic 1 


i 17.95 










TR52 


Cash Fiow Pr^gctjen j 


, 17.95 


8, Erickson 








TRS2 


line Printer ft Disk System Check Tape ■ 


i 1«.95 


p. O. Box 11099 








TRSI 


K-Mcnitor, «K i 


i ».95 


Chicago, IL 60411 








TRSI 


Hi-HoMtor, 16X . S 


, 4.95 










TRSI 


Income Tax - Form 10#OA S 


, 7.95 


TRSI Enigma 1-7 games 








TRS2 


Income Tax - Form 10*0A < 


i 7.95 


TRSI Enigmas X-t games 








TRSI 


Income Tax - Form 10BB l 


i IMS 


TRSI Enigmas 3.7 games 








TRS2 


Income Tax - Form 1*7*9 1 


; («.95 


TRSI Electron 1 - Ohm law, illcers, timers 








TRSI 


Income Tax - Schedule TCftC J 


i 1*.95 


TRSI Test Program - Frog Race; Catalog 


i i-oo 






TRS2 


Income Tax - Schedule TCftG < 


i 17.95 










TRS2 


Income Tax - Form 10*0, Schedules A 4 C J 


i 44.9S 


««-*»««**#»«■ sMtseaoseaoa 








TRSO 


Income Tax - Form 10*0 * 


1152.00 










TR5D 


Income Tax - Form 10«0A S 


, 37.95 


Eaxtoo-Deetoo Products 








TRSO 


Income Tax - Form 10*0* j 


; 37.95 


P. O. Box 4I2» 








TRSD 


Income Tax - Form 10*0 Schedule A $ 


. 37.95 


Shreveport, LA 7II0S 








TRSO 


Income Tax - Schedules 1C4C < 


. 37.95 










TRSD 


Income Tax - Schedule B j 


,37.95 


TRS Star Trek 


S M5 






TRSO 


Income Tax - Scheoui* C S 


i 37.95 


TRS Wumpui 


i M5 






TRSD 


Income Tax - Schedule O 5 


i 37.95 


TRS Digital Mastermind 


S M3 






TRSD 


Income Tax - Schedule E • 


i 37.95 


TRS Pile LOCator 


i M5 






TRSD 


Income Tax - Schedule F i 


1 37.95 


TR5 Oriental Rings 


i MS 






TRSD 


Income Tax - Perm 2210 ; 


, 37.95 


TRS Btortiythm 

TRS All Star Baseball 


i M5 

$ «-*5 



(Add a one Bme S5.00 ask charge) 
TRS2 Demo Cassette ol <isk program printout 

(fiupped Postpaid. Check, MC, VISA.) 

Don Coon 
122S Alpine 
DeWitt, Ml *SS20 
BIT) 449-3*02 

TRS2 Text Editing - regular 

TRS2 Text Editing - and big print - regular 



$ 3.95 



; 7.95 
. 10.95 



e— WHW aaa 



Creative ComeutUxj Sottwate 
p. 0. Box ?S9-M 
MorrUlown, N3 UT940 
(*0» 431-SI12 
In 3N (201) 5W-OW5 

Write lor latest releases. 



John D* Ulta 

53 Fenlmore Street 

Lynorook, NY 11543 



r»*4«aaafl«« 



eaeeefteaaeee 



yyvx*s*»v r> i »i ,»v » p n» >** 

Faulk ft Associates 
2531 Commonwealth 
FuOertbn, CA 92431 
(71« J79-4950 

TRS2 Hexidecimal dump of memory 

TR52 Touch typing trainer 

TRS2 Stock Market simulation game 

TRS2 23 Matches 

TRS2 Math Pun 

TRS2 Text etStor/lomiater 1/79 

TRS2 Relocating Assembler 3/79 

TRS2 Gohi */79 

wHiw WM'iniimm 

R. Fitzgerald 

33JJ Sheila Lane, #29J 

Dallas, TX 73220 

TRS Lunar/Martian Lander 

TRS Star Trek 

TRS Oklahoma - Texas Football 

TRS Carrier Battle 



Michael Flanagan 
S700 Outlook Drive 
Brooklyn, ONo WW 
(214) 7*l-*350 



OCsB-Mtvar* 

P. O. Box 570 
Lyroxook, NY 11563 

TRSlaa Data Set Control Package 

TRSI Persons! Finance Package «K 

TRS2 Personal Finance Package 14K 

TRSI Math Practice Program «K 

TRS2 Math Practice Program «K 

TRS2 Math Practice Program 14K 

TRSI Mortgage Calculations «K 

TRS2 Mortgage Calculations 14K 



Herman Desnonetoy 

2 Pioneer Road 

Paiivted Post, NY 14*70 

(407) 934-4035 



TRSI Pioneer, Space Voyage, star Wars - RT, Zone. Hockey 



n, Lunar Lander, Breakaway, Survival 
Capitalists, Football, Baseball, Frusto-Raca . RT 



(« [or $10.90, each additional $1.00) 
SHHHHHtaeeaaaee eiHIeeaaaae 

3. Fox 

27 Prince William Rd. 
Uorganvule, N3 07751 

TRS Analyze Utility. Expense 
TRS Option Writing 
TRSI Math Tutor 
TRS2 Math Tutor 



RT 



TRSI 
TRSI 

TR51 
TRS2 
TRS2 



Tl-10 games 
T2-10 games 
T-3-5 games 
T21-10 games 
T22-10 games 



$ 11-00 
S 11.00 
S 5-00 
S 11.00 
} 11.00 



(add Si. 00 lor 



G2 Program Llhrary 

CRT Corp 

12S4 North Lawrence Station Road 

Sunnyvale, CA 9*0*4 

TRS Beat the House 
TRS Dollars and Sense 
TRS Clinic 



S IV9J 
S 1».>S 



"ext Edition Is 1m Mm February For «.0O; Subscrsptic* Price Is 112,00 Per Year; ; Post Box W, El Dorado* CA 95625 



Robert . Ell i ott Purser's Reference List of Compute* Cassettes, November 1 97 8 Page $ 



James Garon 

520 West Romneya, Apt. 4 

Anaheim, CA 92801 

.a'RSI- Banner, Bingo, Computer Art* Concentration, "Don't it 
,*Jt' Croake my brown eyes blue". Kaleidoscope, Keyboard, - 
"-..; * Lite, Peg Puzzle, Roman Numberials, Rotate 






H oc E Computronics, Inc. 

Matbmatlcal Application* Service 

Howard Y. Gasman 

P. O- Box 1*9 

New City, NY 10956 

WlB *2M535 



TBS? Master Pa* 100 Programs 
V TKS2- Federal Income Tax Pac 
.IftSf Inventory Control Pac 
;Tes2 Payroll Pac 
TeVH-. Statistics Pac 
'JR32T Business Decision Pac 
;TrS2-. Stock Market Pac 

TRS2 General Ledger Pac 

.TtiStf Personal Finance Pac 
;TRS2; Math Pac 

IRS2- Elementary and Advanced 
ZttSS. GamMing Pac I 



HHHt*^*** Was i H i «■»■* . ** 



Dr. George L - H * fl * r 

1500 Galleon Dr. 
Naples, FL 33*90 

TRS Financial Package * CoM Handicap 



, 1 and 3. Hansen 
-nfoo-JOth St. 
;•». tHego, CA 92120 

^rksC. Active m»r design 



^ 



S.Herter 

J7222 
'ampa, FL 



336J2 



TRS 

TRS 
TRS 
TRS 
TRS 

■TRS 

TftV 



Football Simulation 
Tic Tac Toe 
Automated Calendar 
Math Prompter 

Reaction Tester 
Fraction Reducer 
. Number Gueoer 
Metric Trainer 



$ 10.00 



S 9.50 



$ 12.00 
5 4.00 
5 10.00 
S 10.00 
$ s.00 
$ 1-00 
$ 5.W 
$ S.00 



»** »**•**«»< 



Jerry Hido 
3923 Arapabo 
Uttlerock, AR 72209 
M*-l»5* 

r !)?SSl vGfa'jirJcs I - Checkers, Tic Tac Toe, Plot 
' TRS!' Graphics I - Lunar lander, 23-Matches 
TRSI" "Bettte-Spac* War, Salvo. Target 
TttSl Spcrts-Bajlietbail, Boxing, Football 
■ TRSI FWzJe - Eagles, Squares, Trap 
' "TRSf '■'* Value Pac - Space war, Checkers, Boxing 
TRSi Accounts Payable - Standard Ledger 
TRSI kwentory-On-Une reports by stock number 
TRSI Monthly Report-an option lor above programs 
TP.S2 Graphics I - Checkers, Tic Tac Toe, Plot 
TRS2 Graphics H - Lunar-Lander, 23~Matcnes 
TRS2 BatrJe-Spaee War, Salvo, Target 
TRS2 Sports-BaaketbaU, Boxing, Football 
TRS2 PuKle - Begles, Squares, Trap 
TRS2 Value Pac - Space »», Checkers 
TRS2 Accounts Payable - Standard Ledger 
TRS2 biventory-OTV-Une reports by stock # 
TRS? Monthly Report-Option for above program 

George von HOsMmer, Phi). 
Growth Institutes, Inc. 
*M» Worth Clara 
DeLand. FL 32720 

TRS2 Stats, BarGraph, Incl nonpars stats 

TRS2 Nonparametrlc correlation (or k columns 

TRS2 Predicts Longevity from lifestyle 

TRS2, Scattargram from x, y raw values 

TR52 Scattergram from ranks 

__ „ . (Also available on disk) 



Hubert Howe 
t* Lexington Rd. 
New City, NY 10956 

TRSi 2*> Disassembler. Requires 16K RAM. 

TRS2 ZS0 Disassembler. Requires I6K RAM. 

TRS2 Contract Bridge Gamne. Requires 16K. 

TRS? LIKE Game. 



, TRS2- Banner, Bingo, Computer Art, Concentration, "Don't it 
:v; ;m*k* my brown eyes blue". Kaleidoscope, Keyboard, 

Life, Peg Puzzle, Roman Numberlals, Rotate, Doodle, 

Nlm, Words 



■eeeiHHH HHt aeejHH KeawM i 



F. E. Hoebnor 
P. o. Box 37206 
Oak Park., Ml *«237 

>»mr*«*»?»»« . sss » i nun sit 

Victor rmyp 
«*!» Morrow Road 
Modesto, CA 953J0 

TRSI SUPER STARTREX-16K SHORT-CETT6 C-IO $ ULM 
TRSI Slot Machine, Space War, Tic-Tac-Toe, Prog, Cannon & 
Fly Submarine Chase, Wumpus, Reverse, war, Genius, 
Hamurabi, Acey-Docey, Start Shooter, Monster, 
Biorhythm, Stoplight, Lunar Lander, Bomber, Telephone 
Tell Accumulator, Bookkeeping, 12/2* Hour Clock, 
Bingo, Pontzer Attack, Concentration, Cribbage. 
Pillbox, Star Wars, and over 500 other programs for 
trade. 
TRSI All kinds of T-Bug programs lor tirade 

(Send SASE for information) 

Heal P. Jensen 
1589 Blossom Park 
Lalccwsod, OH W107 
(216) 221-3179 

TRSI*? Air Traffic Control 

TRS1&2 Time * Tide; Cal-Moon Ph-Worid Clock 

TRS 14:2 Games U Mancala-Math Race-Rocket 

TRSI Games tk Bingo-Stool-Olce-Zoo-break 

TRSI42 Monopoly 

TRSI&2 Bus- b Accts. Rec~Loan lnt,-Sav. int. 

TRSI&2 Bus. u> Mel-Conv.-Fin.Time TMe^Bldg 

TKS142 Graphics! Blackboard I, it, 11, IV-Maze 



(POSTPAID NO CO.O.) 



C. Jones 

S5J ESrtsoro Rd„ NW 

Atlanta, GA 30327 

TRS Depreciation, financial analysis. Income tax. Interest 
calculations, real estate selection and evaluation. 



notes* M. Joyce * Asaoeiates 
5925 RockhUi Rd. 
Kansas City, MO 6*110 
(116) 523-765* 

TRS2 Star Trek 

TRS2 Casino Craot 

TRS2 Casino Route™ 

TRS? Casino Blackjack 

TR52 Casino 7 Card Stud 

TRS2 Casino K«x> 




Instant Software, toe 

Kilobaud 

Peterborough, NH 03»5t 

TRS1&2 Basidlntermediate Lunar tender 

TRS142 Space Trek J 

TRS142 Bockgammon/Keno 

TR51*2 Golf/Cross-Ooi 

TRSI*2 electronics I - Tuned circuits, 555,LM3J1 

TRSlJrJ Ham Package 



3e« LaatMsVl Practical ApplicUom 

P. O. Box »I3» 

Foster City, CA 9**0* 

(»15) 573-S217 

TRS2 PILOT Program Development Package 

TBSI ArttB 

TRSI Biorhythm Charting 

TRSI Bowling Alley 

TRSI Dreidel (gambling game for amusemesit) 

TRSI Fire When Ready, Gridleyl 

TRSt FuU Function Lunar Lander 

TRSi Keep Away C» game of chance) 

TRSI Mastermind 

TRSf Music-Bug (play music) 

TRSI One Second Lunar Under with graphics 

TRSI Radio Shack Store Daily Sales 

TRSI Star Wars (shoot oosm spacesNps) 

TRSI TRS-10 RAM, ROM * Function Text 

TRSI Tic Tac Toe 

TRS2 Art Auction 

TRS2 Artist Graphic Package 

TRS2 Biorhythm 

TRS2 Bowling Alley 

TRS2 Calendar (printer required) 

TRS2 Dreidel (gambling game for amusement) 

TRS2 Fire When Ready, Grldley! 

TRS2 Full Function Lunar Lander 

TRS2 Letter Writer (requires line printer) 

TRS2 Mailing IBt (requires LP * 2nd C) S 2C 

TRSI Music (playing and writing system) s 3} 

TRS2 Poster (requires Bne printer) 5 1< 

TRSJ Slot Machine S J 

TRS2 Star Wars (shoot down spaceship) $ ! 

TRS2 Tic T*c Toe $ ! 

TRSD Fife-it tin - memory data base) $ 2) 

(Notes The Root© Shack Daily Sales program is free 
to all Radio Shack Store Managers.) 



Kim Lee 

72 Noetinghlll Road 
Brighton, MA 02133 



03. 

© 

3 

03 



Level t Magazine 
James Cameo 
P. O. Box S316 
Anaheim, CA 92*02 
(71«) 531-9*26 

TRS1*2 Level I Magazine (single copy) 

TRSI&2 Uvet 1 Megazlne Ouul year) 

TRSI*2 Levei I Magazine (year) 

TRSim Special Sample VraooUctorr Issue OiSet 

(Requires ISC) 

Liberty Ridge 
Route 3 Box 448 
Rockport, W *7«3» 



tsTwamer Circle 
Norfotk, VA JJ509 

TRS Graphics 



$ J.O0 



M, U, 4 S Software 

M. Siolzbetg 
16 Marilyn Lane 
Westbury, NY 11590 



TRSI 
TRSI 
TRS2 
TRS2 
TRS2 
TR52 



*K StatisBCS-Mean, SD, t, corr, Anoa, etc 
*K Sutlstics-Above • even morel 
I6K DU as aemb H r-shovs symbolic code, etc 
16K Disaseembler^bove with symbolic tope 
UK Ca«r»ct Brldge-You against TRS-IO! 
I6K Lift-In machine languege-<00X fasterl 



9M 



9.00 



CO 



7.» 

7.35 
7.93 
7.95 
7.95 



D. MacAdM 

52 School Street 
Chathno, UA «2»33 

TRSI Life Cassette and instructions 

(Listing onry -with Instrurtions $6.90) 



i 15-00 
120.00 T-i 
i Ii0» .„ 

i »%ooO 

SB 



i t-oo 



Trade 
Trade 
Trade 
Trade 
Trade 



Robert Lancelot 
1*71 Acorn Drive 
St. Joseph.. Ml *90»5 

TRSi Checkbook, Graphing, Demo, etc. 



5 7.95 



S I0.6YJ 



Hew Ebitiok Is Ih Hid February For tt.OO; Subscriptsok Price Is $12.00 Per Year ( Post Box H66, El Dorado, CA 95625 



Robert Elliott Purser's Reference List of Computer Cassettes, November 1978 Pa»e 9 



s 

w 

T-l 

mi 

Se- 



Med Hatur Software 
Tim Quintan 
219 Washington Ave. 
Chelsea, MA 021 so 
«m &g4-7»l 

TRS1&2 C»l»c«<: Blockage Runner S 

TRSIS2 Magic Isle $ 

TRJl*2 Science Fiction Sampler $ 

TRS2 St»f Trek 10 $ 

TRS1*2 TRS-JO Demo Program $ 

TRS1*2 Othello ni $ 

TRSI42 Came. - Croup I $ 

TRS1&2 Graphics - Group 1 S 

TRS1*2 Personal Finance Package 5 

TRS1&2 Bingo Calling Program $ 

TRS 142 Diet Planning Package $ 

TRSl*2 Daily Bjorbythm Program $ 

TRSI Computer Support Package $ 

TRS 1*2 Mastermind n - Mlcklus $ 

TR5I&2 Tarot Car* - Rowlett S 

TRSI*2 Treasure Hunt - Mlcklus 5 

THS2 Safari* $ 

TRS2 R/T Lunar Lander $ 
TRSI Space Colony 

(Volume Discounts) 

Matrix Magarir* 

A magazine lor the professional astrologer 

Michael Erlewine 

10*1 North Main Street 

Arm Arbor, Ml 45104 

TRS2 l«K Complete Natal Horoscope Package $ 40.00 

la variety of programs similar to those listed 

In the PET columns are being made available for 

the TRS-S0, 16K Level ID 



9.95 
7.95 
3.95 
IH.95 
5.95 
5.95 
5.95 
5.95 
9.95 
5.95 
9.95 
5.95 
5.95 
7.95 
MS 
7.95 

aw 

7.95 



R. Menzkss 

7106 Colgate Drive 
Alexandria, VA 22307 

TRS Star Trek 
TRS Bterhythm 
TRS Lunar Lander 



Micro Architect, Ltd, 
Poi Pow 

94 Ootften Street 
Arlington, UA 0217* 

TRS142 IDatX, Cassette Data Base Manager K 

TRS1*2 INV-I, Invwntrry Managamem 12K 

TRS142 Finance-!, Stock and Bank Accoum ** 

TRS2 Word-!, Word Pro ie ss ui l«K 

TRS2 Sui-I, Statistics Package «K 

TRS2 Mail-ffl a malUng system <di* raqj 14K 

TRS2 Wotd-wl a diskette-based word processor 

TRS2 Mail-1 a mailing system 16K 

TRS2 Sort-1 a sorting utility IK 

TRS2 Key-l a key-access utility - linked IK 

TRS2 Safe-! sales analysis * 

TRSI&2 Bank-I, a check balance *K 

TRSJA2 Stock-J, stock infarmatioft 4K 

TRS2 UTIL-I, SORT-I, K6Y-I 

TRS2 WV-Jfl, a <ftsk based Inv. sys. 16K 

TRS2 Kev-m, diskette data access mil. IK 



hH,H4<> 



■»•••••>«*•• 



Ulcro-Keyer 
Box K 

Kingsport, TN 376*2 

TRSIS2 Mors* Code with send/receive hardware 



•eeeseeaaaai 



CO 

r»« 

O 
•z, 

*— . 

& 

Dh 

s 
o 
o 

o 

CO 

& 



I 



Micro Logic Carp. 
Box 17a 

HackansaCk. NY % 07*02 

TRSI Billiard Ball 

TRSI Billiard Ball 



$ 9.95 
S 7,00 
$ 3.00 



S 2000 
S 2<LO0 
$ :5j» 
$25.30 
$ 10JO 
$ 35.00 
$ 35.00 
S 23.00 
S 10.00 
$ 1100 
5 10.00 

S iaoc 
$ io.oc 

$ i6-00 
$ 33.00 
S 16.00 



$39.93 



«-95 
•.95 



■l(l,t^Ht,t,H 



Micro M a n a gwn a n l Systems 

Radio Shack Dealer - Mint Man 
Downtown Snooping Center 
Cairo, GA 3172* 

TRSO Inventory program (sequential tiles) 

TP.S2 Filed Asset Depreciation Schedule 

TRSD Oisk File Retrieval 

33fSf> Cf*r*l ie^arr- - **iaoc* forward 

TRSO Trial Balance - option 

TRSO Budget Analysis - option 

TRSO A/R suotedger - option 

TRSO hit 5x*(*dg*r - option 



$ 9O.00 
5 35.00 
$ 30*1 
5195.50 
S IO.O0 
$ 23,00 
J 140.00 
S, 50.00 



alicrc-eseg* 

P. O. 6265 
Arlington, VA 22206 

TRSI Intelligent Micro-Mouse 



Mkxotronjct 
5943 Pioneer Road 
Hughson, CA 95326 
(209) 6 3 * «W or 6i7-2tgt 

TRS !*on* and RTTY with Ham Interface kit 
TRS Morse and RTTY with Ham Interlace 



$ 10.00 



Mscrowar* 

P. O. Bos «7 
oiacksourg, VA 24060 

TRS tovWTacr Cortina/ 
TRS Mailing List 



8.95 



Miliar Mlcrocompusar Servsoas 
61 Lake Shore Rd. 
Natit*, MA 01760 
(«7) 65V61M 

TRSI Games (Startrek 3, Cannon, Loglcmaster) 

TRSI Computer Support ICheck-Out, math sub.) 

TRSI Education <Water PoUutian. convorsatlcn) 

TRSI Olsplays t»«avers- Sprial, Clodc, Kakfldo) 

TRSI Combination Ull 11 above programs) 

TR52 Ten Program Combinatirs' "ape 

TR5D Ten program Comfaifaracn Tape 

(Adi shipptng/'handlirtg; Mass. orders add 596 sales tax, 
33% oisccunt avowed on $100 minimum Or,W<' 



WUliam C. Millet 
10100 Phar Lap Dr. 
Cupertino, CA 95014 

TRSI Package il indules 7 different games 
TRSI Package #2 jxluoat 7 different games 



Richard S. Moore 
5640 (Hen Oak Court 
Saline, Ml 41176 

TRSI Great Circle Navigation 



Uulti Micro UesSa Co^. 

P, a Bo* 1025 
Arvada. CO 10001 



TRS 
TR5 



RJ-BG1 Games 
Rg-BCz Games 



^»**»..**H, 



hkatheast MICROTARE 
Ms. E. N. Newcomb 
Bos 6133 
Syracuse, NY 132S7 

TRS! SORT! 4K in mem. numeric only sort 
TRS2 SORTH 16K In mem. alphanumeric sort 
TRS1M B3 SIMULATOR - dev. system to beat &o 

Omaltak Systems 
24 Marda Jean Drive 
Tewksbury, MA 01i7< 
(617) 151-3156 

TRSO AW, A/P, GL, PR, Sot. Cost, WP 

L. Owens 

Rt. i. Box 3J»A 

Thomasville, GA 31792 

TRS2 Business programs 



9.95 
9.95 



$ 5.00 



$ 10.00 
$ 10.00 



$ 9,95 
$ 19.95 
$ 19.95 



$400.00 



rWmel Software 
Box 136 

Cambridge, MA 0213* 
(617) 7*3-0694 

TRSI Introductory Special 

TRS Poker, Kingdom, Queen, Matadore 

TR5I Stimulating Simulations 

TRSI Armchair Football 

TRS142 Microchess 2.0 

TRS Graphics Package 



i «.*$ 

I taj> 
I IMS 

IIMS 
I IB.** 



*sssssssssssssaa s «a 



$ 99-.00 

$129^K) Todd PreebsUng 
1237 Seminole 
Richardson, TX 



.pafta aaawas aa aaawaea 



TRS2 
TRS2 
TRS2 
TRS2 
TRS2 
TRS2 



Program Design Inc. 
Carol Klitmer 
II liar court 
Greemvtsh, CT 0W30 
«03) 661-8799 

TRSI Presdiool IQ Builder 
TRSI Step-by-Step Basic 
TRS 1Q BoUden Vocabulary 
TRSI IQ Bullden Number Series 
TRSI IQ E«Jlloer: Analoajea 

Preschool |Q fiuUder 

Step-by-Step Basic 

IQ Bullden Vocabulary ■ ; 

!Q Bullderi Number Seriaa 

IQ Bullderi Analogies . " 

Story BuUder/Vord Master ages 9Ma> 

(3% (Ms, $1 mln, VTSA/MC aeoapsadj 

va**»»»ss««»*»ssssasiis a 

Th* Program Uaragai 

Chet Buhrman 
P- O. Box *5 
Inglefleld, IN 4761» 
IIT2) SS7.352* 

TP.S2 Boat 6 - Battleship, the traditional game 

TRS2 Bug - experiment In artificial inteHljanca ' 

TRS2 ■Perception - four digit raintoers 

TRS2 Combo 3 - simulated slot machine* 

TRJ2 Budget 2 - home budget system 

TRS2 Weatherstat - store/display weather data 

TRS2 Cycle 1 - btorhytnm 

TRS2 Datex - number of days between 

TR$2 Menu Planner 

TTAS2 Customized Payroll program 



Progremma Consultants 

3400 Wilshire Boulevard 
Los Angeles, CA 90010 

TRS2 TRS-80 FORTH language 
TRS2 System Debug Facility 



•J*W 
MO 

MB 



».7> 

R» 

MS 

xn 

•JB 
*J» 
7J1 



' i J74* 
liTM 



Programrners Software ExxxMnft 

2110 North 2nd Street " " "'" 

Cabot, AR 72023 - . ' 

TRS Craps, Aery Ducey, Lunar Lander. Batman,' Mttrb a a , 
Hurkle,. Wumpus, HamriunH, Russian i ssaVs ll* . «•**, 
Reverse, Bagel, Biorhythm, King, SaM Pile. Star Van, 
Starrrek, Football, Oh*** frunt, F» g^ g^r. tlrtt. 

Target, Slot Machine, Boon PUo, 

(Enclose blank csaaett* with order, $i0J» par ptograsa, tiM 
catalog) '■ I. 



The Program ot the Month Corp 
257 Central Park West 
New York, NY 10024 



Quality Software 
10051 Odessa Ave. 
Sepulveda, CA 91343 

TRS2 Fastgammon 



■eeeeaaaaees asa a s s s a 



O. Patoer 
115 Ky Ave. 

Lywt Heven, FL 



32444 



TR5142 Music Generation . needs no hardware 



AQuWgMn* 

715 South Alder Street 
Port Angeles, WA 95362 

$ 9.93 TRS-J0 Lunar Lander 



i MB 



Next Editioh Is In Rio February For M.OO; Susscriptioii Price Is ,12,00 Per Yiarj Post Box 166, El Dorado, CA 95623 



Rose r i Elliott Purser's Reference List of Computer Cassettes, November 1978 Page 16 



S 24,95 
$ 14.95 
S 19.95 



RACET Computers 
702 Palrodaie 

orange, ca 92665 

TRS2 Remodel - renumber, move, delete 
TRS2 Time Series Analysis/Modeling 
TRS2 Optical Systems Layout/Analysis 

Radio Shack 
• Oept. TRS - 80 
On* Tandy Center 
ft. Worth, TX 76)02 

TR5I 26-1)01 Payroll Level I 

TRS142 26-1302 In-Memory Information 

TRS2 26-1503 Mailing tin 

TRSD .26-1551 Mailing List 32K 

TRSD 26-1552 General Ledger ' 

TRSl 26-1602 Personal Finance 

TRSl 26-1701 Math t 

TRSl 26-1702 Algebra 

TRSl 26-170) Statistical Analysis 

TRSl 26-1801 Blackjack L-l 

TRSl 26-1802 Quick Watson 

TRS2" 26-1803 Blackjack L-Il 

TRSl 26-1805 Games Pack I 

TRS 26-1901 Mlctochess 

TRS 26-2001 T-Bug Cassette 

TRS 26-2002 ecBtorMssemHet 

TRSl 26-2003 Level 1 Basic Course 

TRS2 26-2004 Lewi n Renumber 



(Note* Fort Worth office* does not accept mall orders- 
Order through your local Radio Shack store) 



Phil Rein 

122 Eaglecroft Road 

WejtfleW, m 07090 

TRS2 ' Astrology 



:p.L.Rce«* 
Routt 3, Box S3 
Salem, VA 201353 



TRSl Alphabetic Punch Cards for Knitting Looms 
TRS2 Alphabetic Punch Card for Knitting Looms 

(Level 1 is 4K| Level Is 16K) 



Rupert Corporation 
Rupert Lona 

6701 Slmms Street 
Hollywood, Florida 33026 

TfcSl Space Cruiser - An unusual game 

TRSl Tobruk - War Game (A.H.) 

TRSl The movie "The Castle of Doom'* 

"TRSl Astrophlcs Basic 1 (astronomy) 

G. <*. Seheil 

#113 • 1638 Bushman Dr. 

Kansas City, MO 61110 



■ 24-95 
, 24.95 



TRSl 
TRS2 
TRSl 
TRS2 



Starlleet 4K 
Starlleet 4K 
Star Trek <* 
Star Trek 5K 



-»#*tH,**4<H*"**M ******«*« 



$r*Tronlca,lnc. 
721 Ellsworth Or. 
Silver Springs, MD 20910 
130!) J89»3391 

TRSl Demo cassette with Dual Cassette I/O 



Small System Software 

P. O. Boi 366 

Newbury Park, CA 91520 

TRS142 RSM-1S Monitor/Disassembler 

TRS 1*2 RSL-I Drawing/Lite 

TRS142 RSM-1 Monitor 

ESP-1 Assembler/Editor/Monitor 
Air Raid-Shooting Gallery Game 
Electric Pencil 16K Word Processor 
Electric Pencil & TRS232 Interface 
RSM.2 Advanced 16K Monitor 

TRS2 RSM-2D Advanced Disk Monitor 

TRS2 CMV-1 Disk Conversion Program 



TRSI42 
TRS1&2 
TRS 142 
TRS1*2 
TRS142 



1H„«,«* 



»»***#«#•#*< 



Softbyte 

315 Dominion Drive 

Newport News, VA 23602 

TRSD Federal Income Tax Systems 

Softfell Unlimited 
P. O. Box 145 
Lithonla, GA 30058 

Ham Radio 

TRS2 W4GKP Logging Program 

TRS2 DXCC Counties Record 

TRS2 WAS Record 

TRS2 WAWYF Contest Logger 

TRS2 European OX Contest Logger 

Machine Language 

TRS2 Dis-Assembler Object Program 
TRS2 Dis-Assembler Symbolic Program 



TRSl General .Accounting 
TRS2 General Accounting 
TRS2 Mailing List Manager 

Computing Aids 



$ 10.00 

S 10.00 

5 5,00 

$ 5.00 



$ 69.95 



TRSl 
TRS2 



Array Manipulation 
Program Skeleton 



Games 

fSST" 

TRSl 

TRSl 

TRSl 

TRSl 

TRS': 

TRS2 

TP.S2 

TTtS2 

TRS 

T»SJ 

TRS2 

TRS 

TRS2 

TRS2 

TRS2 



Bingo Caller 
Tic-Tac-Toe 
Star Trek 

Bio-Rhythm 
Mastermind 
Compu-tneUo 
Don't Be Last 
Battleship 
Stud Poker 
Five Ord Draw 
Star Trek 4K 



CMsjas-taaUo 



Frve Cart Ore*- Poker 



Softape 

10756 Vsrww^ 
North Hoilvwood. CA 
(213) 985-5763 

TRS Software Sxru^ 



Software 

25469 Hard* So-ee; 

Loma Linda, CA 9235* 



5283.00 



$ 15.00 
$ 15,00 



S 9.95 
i 9.95 
$ 9.95 



Sam Solomon 

6317 Eliot 

Long Beach, CA 90803 

(213) 431-5913 

TRS2 SINGLE-STEP 4 relocate Ob), code! 2K 
TR.S2 DISASSEMBLER creates EDTASM source tape 
TRS142 DRAW POKER w/grapHCa * bluffing; 5K 

(Manual Included-list extra; SASE for specs.) 

Sr.f i k o asy Software Ltd. 
Box 1220 

Kemptviil*, Ontario 
Canada KOG DO 
(613) 258.2*51 

TRS Bulls and Bears 
TRS Warlords 

(Available only through computer stores) 



Will Summers 
406 Third Ave. 
Asbury Park, NJ 07712 
(201) 774-2785 

TRSl Otnelio-2 players 
TRSl Yahtxee-to 6 players 

(57-00 for both) 

Tape Talk Magazine 

RJck Uttey, Publisher 

P. O. Box 5401* 

San lose, CA 95154 

(408) 938-8273/TolI Free I-80O-835-2246 

TRS142 TapeTalk Magaane (single copy) 
TRS1&2 TapeTalk Magaane (year) 
TRS142 TapeTalk Magaane (Two Years) 



Taytor 

P. O. Box 1180 
Plattsburgh, NY 12901 

TRS142 Aardvark/Capture 

TRS2 Startrek 

TRS142 Roulette/One Arm Bandit 

TRS142 Patterns/PmbaU 

TRSl*2 Annuities 

TRS142 Spaceship/Cannon 

TRS142 Oice/Hyperbag.ls 

TRS 1 42 1 CWng/Blorhythms 

TRS; Poker 

TRS2 CombustlotVGrowth 

TRS2 Rally 

TRS? NVm/Hexapawn 

TRS2 Elec Pak i-fllter design 

TRS2 Blec Pac 2-attenuators 

TRS2 Elec Pac 3-standard formulae 

TRS2 Math Pak 1- trig. Inverse, tags 

TRS142 Math Pak 2-primes. (acw-avs- : 

TRS2 Math Pak 3-hypetbo(ic 4 i v c. s e ■ 

TRS2 Math Pak 4-garnwa * I 

TRS2 Math Pak 5-eurve Soil 

TRS2 Math pak 6-mr=-rr vs. 

TRS2 Stat Pak l-t 

TRS2 Ecrjn Pak l-t 

TRS2 TiC-Tac-Tee 

TRS2 Pyra mid am 

TRS1*2 Chocfaers 

TRS2 Race 

TES2 Horse 



lAese SE 5ar aosiaje * handling) 



W 

■ 14.0C . 

. UJC u 

in 
5S- 



. 12^00 

; 12.00 



4.00 
4.00 



13.95 J2 



4»>*.R*«« 



Sandy Stgel 

68512 Mammoth Ave. 

Van Nuys, CA 91*0) 

TRS Graphic Lunar Lander, Stot Machine, Art S 12.9) 

twMHiwtmmnu n 



Simulations Pubucatlora 
Strategy di Tactics Magaane 
44 East 23rd Street 
New York, NY 11010 
(212) 673-4103 

(Aids for War Games available someday soon.) 



Software Industries 
Ted Carter 
902 Pinecrest Drive 
Richardson, TX 75080 
(214) 235-0915 

TRS2 Tank, Fast Draw, Hangman 

TRS1&2 Bomber, Sketch, Biortm 

TRS 1*2 Skooter, Lander, Spacebars 

TRSI&2 Checkers, Reverse. Mindermst 

TRS1&2 Ghost, Tic.Tac-Toe, Hi-Lo, Nim 

TRS1*2 Wonlpus, Dragon 

TRS1*2 Baseball, Crinkle, Escape 

TRSI42 Horse, Craps. '23 1 , Artillery 

TRS142 Mathelp, Carh-R, Dates, Capitols 

TRS 1 42 Checkbook, Interest (Checkbook LH-I6K) 

TSS142 Dragon 2, Mission Pacillc (I6K Reoulred) 



Su-S» 



»L»5 

9J5 
1-9) 
t»5 
9.99 



$ %M 

$ t»-9J 




Swift computer Is compatible 
TR5-S0 so its software should be too.) 



:-e-« Reccrd System 
■*-x-<e Cystem 
^ Pac'i^age 



GO 

a 

S 15.00 ^ 
i 15.00 I 
S 15.00 * 



Hext Edition Is In Mid February For $4.00) Subscription Price Is $12,00 Per Year* fosi In ■*&. El Bora»o ; CA "15623 



Bottom Shelf 100-program library only $49. 50 



ED 

4> 

3 Bottom Shell's Library 100, is a coilect- 
" ion of Level If programs on five cassettes, 
-* packaged in a vinyl binder, along with a 
c«j printed program index and guide. 
■-« The tapes are set up for 4K users on one 
t, side and 16K on the other. The programs 
o are arranged into five categories, namely, 
** "Business and Finance", "Education", 
<° "Home", "Graphics", and "Games". 

^ BUSINESS AND FINANCE 

Of interest to everyone dealing with fin- 
ancial calculation, these programs are de- 
tailed in the program guide. Input of data is 
self-explanatory for the most part, and us- 
ing the programs should not be too hard 
for beginning computerists, Sixteen-K- 
machine owners can load all the business 
and finance programs in three Cloads, 

Four-K users will have to load individ- 
ual programs. 

oo 

to programs in this section are: 

° present value of a future sum, simple in- 
£J terest for days, future value of a present 
sum, amortization, schedule, compound 
"^ interest rate, installment loan interest 
^ rate, days between dates, term of instal- 
>> Iment loan, and present value of series 
* payments. 
K Also: 

to real estate investment analysis, effective 
"^ interest, internal rate of return, regular 
j deposits, depreciation amount/rate/sal- 
vage value/schedule, bond present value, 
2 bond yield to maturity, sale cost/margin/ 
05 day of Hie week, and moving ad. ' 

The moving ad program will be of in- 

o^ terest to those who want to use their TBS- 

<" 80 to have changing messages scroll a- 

,H cross the screen. A file of 10 static and 

X 10 moving messages is constructed. Then 

® two static and two moving messages are 

randomly selected, displayed for 3 cycles, 

then the process starts over again, Ames- 

sage-building-and-editing routine is part 

of this program. 



EDUCATION 

Tiny Pilot is a simple machine -code 
programming language which will make 
program writing available to the novice 
programmer, either student or teacher 
Simple, yet versatile, it will open up new 
areas for the learning process. 

The math test-type programs on the ed- 
ucation tape are: 

add, subtract, multiply/divide, fractions/ 
decimals. 

Also included is a base numbers pro- 
gram, which tests one's ability to convert 
numbers to a selected base, from 2 to 32. 

A 16Kprogram, eduquiz, questions about 
10 topics, giving the user a choice of an- 
swer modes, either drill, multiple choice, 
fill in the blank, true/false or matohing. 
At the end, the user can repeat the same 
category or return to the subject menu 
for another selection, 
subjects are: 

on states, their capitals, date of entry in- 
to union, order of entry, abbreviations, 
largest cities. Also inventors and invent- 
ions, urban areas and population rank, 
world capitals and countries, authors and 
books, and presidents of the United States, 

HOME 
Includes: Calendar, for any month of the 
year; Baby Sitter, displays emergency 
phone numbers; A tap of any key brings 
up a screen filled with notes, instructions, 
etc.; Nutrition, displays several categor- 
ies of food, single-serving shows cal- 
ory and carbohydrate content. 

Bar Tender lists 28 different drinks, 
with recipe for each; Drunkometer tests 
reaction time; Vacation and Night Check- 
off fills screen with reminders which 
erase as you input their item numbers. 

Expense gives detailed expense account- 
ing; Mileage is similar to Expense, but 
for automotive costs. Conversion equates 
units of weight and distance; Number Con- 
version changes numbers to a selected 
base, from 2 to 32; Message Board 



scrolls two messages across the screen. 
Christmas List Is name/address' listing 
program, with sort and edit functions. 

graphics . , ; : 

Line graphics programs include: ■ ■ r - 
Blocks, random rectangles on the screen; 
Fireside, a moving graphics display., of 
graphio symbols; Weird, random graph- 
ics characters draw across the screen; 
Herring, set-reset draws a herringbone 
pattern; Snoopy, complete with dog house. 
Word graphics programs allow you: -to: 
ScroU messages from right to left; Flash 
messages one word at a time; Launch 
messages up the screen, a letter at a time; 
Move messages in a vertical scroll; Step 
messages like stairs. . . 

Sketch, allows the user to draw pictures 
with graphics characters and save them on 
tape. •• ■ ■ 

GAMES : 

Gambling games include wheel of for- 
tune, rolling the dice, flipping a coin, rac- 
ing horses (and even roaches). For high- 
est possible stakes, there is Russian 
Roulette..,. 

Guessing Games are also included. 

Sting Ray and Star Blazer are two space 
war games, as is an animated graphics 
game called Doomsday, in which you fly 
down a mined corridor to fire your -en- 
ergy beam into a narrow target. 

The 16K Star Trek gives the capability 
of seeing all 64 quadrants of the galaxy 
during the entire game. You are given 30 
star dates to destroy a random number 
of Klingons and return to a star base. 
This version is a real-time game,.with a 
counter counting off the remaining time. 
Accuracy is required in entering com- 
mands, or you may lose a star date in the 
process. '. : '■•■ 

Library 100 sells for $49.50 and"$2 post- 
age and handling. (GA residents add 4 per 
cent sales tax). From: Bottom Shelf, box 
49104, Atlanta GA 30359 ■ - - ■ 



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LOST READ DATA , Cont. : 

No one expects diskettes to last forever 
but with plently of TLC you may be able to 
approach the 6 Specification for Diskette 
Life: 2.5 x 10 passes/track (110 hours) 
or about 5 years actual use. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

There are some internal adjustments in 
the TRS-80 which may be out of whack and 
cause disk errors: 

a) Critical power supply voltages 

b) Disk head alignment (azimuth?) 
o) Phasing of certain timing signals 

d) Numerous small problems which add up 
to occasional disk errors. 
We must consider these items as "in- 
formed speculation" since we don't yet 
have reports of any cures being effected 
by adjustments in these areas. 

I hope this all helps someone. If you 

have suggestions to add to the list, let us 
know about them. Good luck. 



Scheil Startrek errors listed 

Mechanical failure of TRS-80 Computing's resulted in errors and omissions, in the 
Qume printer, combined with poor book- Startrek by George W, Scheil, issue 1:2 
let trimming (the fault of another printer). The following lines correct this: '". - ' 



150 GOSUB1 850: t F ( X< 1 ) +( X> 6) THEN1 70 .„■•.: 

160 ON X GOSUB1110, 730, 500,410,1410,1190 '"'.'■ 

170 GOSUB1050:IF DO050 THEN190 

180 PR I NT "NO MORE STARDATES " : END '—' 

7 85 X=A(I ):GOSUB890:A=(ABS(W-M)+ABS(Y-N)*3)/4 

860 NEXT) : RETURN 

1460 IF(A(A(82)-1)«=2)+(A(A(82)+1)»2)THENT = 4:E»5000:F = 0:. ; 

1942 RESTORE:FORI"1TOINT{X) :READ A : NEXT I : X=A: RETURN 

1950 PR1NT"DESTROYE0 l, :K=K-l:L=L-1 :A(C+3)=A(C+3)-1:A(X)=0 

1960 FOR)=71T075: IF A( J ) =ZTHENA( J ) =0: A ( J +5 ) =0 

1965 NEXTJ:RETURN 



Software lets you have Level I, II 



By JEFF LASMAN 
You can have Level I and Level n in the 
same computer without any modification 
at all! The solution is an inexpensive 
($14.95) program from Apparat. "Level I In 
Level II" loads under system command and 
immediately converts your 16k Level II 
computer into a 12k Level I computer, 
with all the advantages and disadvantages 
of the Radio Shack Level I. 

At first I was confused as to how come 
you only could get 12k of memory with 
Level I In the machine, but then I realized 
that of course four-Kof memory was being 
used by the Level I interpreter, relocated 
to the top 4k of space in the 16k configur- 
ation. 

Of course as with Radio Shack's orig- 
inal Level I you get the slow tape trans- 
fer rate and the non-rollover keyboard. 

AV Systems 
has applications 

A-V Systems Group has recently com- 
pleted a model of the stock market, 
(proprietary); and a scheduling program 
for an ambulance service in the New 
York area. 

The firm is working on an implement- 
ation of an extremely versatile word pro- 
cessor and an accounting system includ- 
ing general ledger, payroll, accounts re- 
ceivable, and accounts payable. The sys- 
tem is designed for accountants and in- 
cludes full audit trail capabilities. It will 
be available shortly. 

An inventory management system is a- 
vailable which includes sales report, re- 
ceiving report and inventory records. This 
inventory management system will be in- 
tegrated with the accounting system 
through the general ledger. These pro- 
grams will all be available for DOS Basic 
on the TRS-80. 

A-V Systems Group is a multi-discip- 
linary group of independent consultants 
from management, communications, fin- 
ance, building planning and design, health, 
labor management, and systems engin- 
eering, who, working together are able to 
bring the advantages of systems engineer- 
ing and applications programming to many 
areas of operation throughout the North- 
east. A-V is especially interested in cus- 
tom financial and business applications. 
While the firm supports several machines 
rather than one machine, it reports that 
TRS-80 orders placed from various Rad- 
io Shack stores are almost ten to one over 
other equipment orders. 

A-V applications run between $2600 and 
$7500 (two machines) for the TRS-80 and 
between $7000 and $25,000 on other equip- 
ment. All machines supported are micro- 
computers. 

While small business applications are 
the majority of its work, the company says 
it is surprised to find that a number of 
AAA firms are also extremely interested 
in micro-equipment for distributed pro- 
cessing applications, as intelligent term- 
inals, or for applications which would be 
inefficient to program on the client's 370- 
512K partitioned— memory machine. 

Several needs which are extremely im- 



All your old Level I tapes and programs 
are fully usable, and programs produced 
by this Level I will work perfectly In a 
Level I machine as sold by Radio Shack. 
So it seems Level I compatibility is com- 
plete. 

One problem: Many programmers want 
Level I in their computer to feed in the 
machine language programs made for 
Level I (i.e., slow tape baud rate) TRS- 
80s, Beware! "Level I in Level IT will 
NOT work on machine language programs! 
But for true Level I computing or pure 
nostalgia (not to mention exchanging tapes 
with new friends new in computing who 
only have Level I) or simply to feed in 
some of those old Cload or Practical Ap- 
plications Level I programs, this fits tie 
bill. 



portant to A-V Systems have emerged in 
the several months which have passed 
since It started working with the TRS-80. 
The most apparent need is applications 
software. If other programmers wish to 
supply some of its software needs, A-V 
Systems will purchase sound programs 
for resale, 

A-V Systems will not re- invent the wheel 
for its clients. It needs to provide most 
store managers with lots of information 
and training relative to selling compu- 
ters. Especially business systems. The 
firm also finds that as a computer the 
TRS-80 is not a panacea for all business 
problems. That it should not be sold as 
another piece of Radio Shack equipment. A 
high, level of support is needed. 

A-V Systems Group is at 1446 Durham 
rd., Madison CT 06443 (203) 421-3379. 

Mailing list, cash 
register games 

Practical Applications has announoed the 
following new programs: 
MAILING LIST for business and profes- 
ional applications (home use too), uses two 
floppy disks to keep up to 1300 names and 
addresses, sort in alphabetical or zip ord- 
er for labels. Also lists on the screen or 
printer for fast and easy updating! Can be 
expanded to more names by simply adding 
more diskettes. Proved in use, $49.95. 
Other versions as low as $29.95. 
CASH REGISTER is what your TRS-80 
(Level II) will work like with this program 
installed. Nothing else needed to keep a 
complete daily record. May be used with 
or without line printer to keep track of 
seven classes of sales, whether taxable or 
non-taxable, under user-oontrol. Cash 
registers cost thousands, but this is only 
$15.00! 
—Practical Applications is at box 4139, 
Foster City CA 94404 (415)573-8217, 
Bank-Amerlcard, Visa and Master 
Charge accepted. 



DISK SYSTEM FOR SALE 
San Diego owner has a 32K disk system he 
will sell for $1800. Call Bill Root, (714) 
455-1330 x 330, or 265-1310 (home). 



Firm offers help 
in programming 

Occupational Computing Company, Inc., 
a microcomputer software supplier, has 
announced a "team-up-with-a-pro" ser- 
vice for current and prospective owners 
of the Radio Shack THS-80 microcom- 
puter. 

By completing the request form avail- 
able in participating Radio Shack stores 
or by contacting OCC directly, TRS-80 
users can get help to turn their ideas 
into running programs. 
The request form asks: 
1). What data will be fed to the com- 
puter, 
2). How will the computer manipu- 
late the supplied information, 
3). How will tee computer report the 
results, 
OCC provides feasibility consulting, 
standard and custom software for the 
TRS-80 microcomputer. 

OCC staff has experience in various 
professional and business applications 
including financial business systems, sec- 
urities trading, retailing, wholesale dist- 
ribution, mail order, transportation, man- 
ufacturing, document retrieval, computer 
assisted instruction, and school manage- 
ment. For mformatio.i contact Barry Led- 
erman, 

—OCCUPATIONAL COMPUTING CO. 
22311 Ventura Blvd., #123, Woodland 
Hills CA 91364 



How can one keep 
Level I ROMs? 

How does one keep the Level I ROMs when 
converting to Level n? Doesn't Radio 
Shack do it on an exchange-only basis? 
I use a 12" Sanyo TV as a monitor, but 
the print is rather hard to read because of 
narrow letters and spacing, due to the in- 
compatibility of the 6Mhz and 4.5Mhz 
bandwidth. Has anyone come up with an 
easy adaptation or modification to solve 
this problem yet? 

Apparat Incorporated offers a very in- 
expensive 16K RAM conversion. Has any- 
one used this kit yet? 

—NEIL H. MORSE, 923 R st„ Eureka 
CA 95501 

(To keep your Level I ROM, you can install 
Level n yourself, see 1:2 issue. If you've 
let them get away, try Apparat' s Level I 
in Level H program, $15, Ed.) 

Here^s correction 
on Level I/II mod 

We have a TRS-80 Level H here that I 
tried the Level I/II switch thing per Dan 
L iking' notes. 

I found that all references to pin 20 
should instead have been to pin 18. This 
was the "D" version board and it had jump- 
ers on it, switching 18 and 20 around. 
—Roger L, Smith, Personal Computer 

Place, 1840 W. Southern, Mesa AZ 

85202 



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w Bowling league statistics system 



w A Bowling League Statistics system is 
. <n now available for the 16K Level H TRS-80, 
1 •" Called BLISS, the system oonszsts of 

** two programs. 

The first Is used to enter initial data 

£for a league, such as team and player 

C< names and scoring options to be used 

rt by the league, 

rt The second is used after each league 

w-meet to enter each bowler's game scores, 
BLISS then computes and displays weekly 
and cumulative statistics for each team 
and individual. Cumulative data is kept 
on tape cassette and updated each week, 
A large number of options are avail- 
able to handle nearly any league varia- 
tion of awarding game points, handicap- 
ping, mixed leagues, and blind scoring. 
Statistics provided for both teams and in- 
dividuals are: games won, won/lost per- 
centage (teams only) high game and series, 
average, total pins and league leaders 

<o (individuals only). 

* A simple technique called CFP design 
„ guarantees the user complete control over 
o> the system while interacting with it. Every 
^, item entered by the user is validated for 
y accuracy and, if the user is not sure what 

is expected at any point, typing HELP 
^produces an explanation. 
~ la fact, the user need know nothing 

more about computers than how to turn 

* it on, load the program, ar.d type HELP, 
a All entries are as simple and brief as 
i-^ possible, and consistency of interactions 
s is maintained throughout. All values en- 
« tered by fee user can be displayed and 
w easily cfcaag-ed. The user need not worry 

.about beirg stuck wife an invalid entry, 
ao ' 

~ Use T-Bug 
i to relocate 

A trick program method I tumbled on to 
relocate programs at the end of m&moxy, 
is to use T-Bug and POKE the Start ad- 
dress into memory location 41 FE and 
4a FF. 

Record this at the end of any program 
several times and if your program 
"bombs" just hit Reset and Cload the 2 
byte program into 41 FE and 41 FF and 

» you are up and running. 

m -MAX GAERTNER, 825 Pelham ave„ 
Warminster PA 18974 

fc WANTS EIGENVALUE, 



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EIGENVECTOR PROGRAM 

Where could I obtain a program for 
calculating eigenvalues and eigenvectors 
of a matrix in Basic for use in my 
TRS-80 Level II computer? 
—HEINZ W. STERNBERG, 1100 Ptarm- 
igan dr. #6, Walnut Creek CA 94595 



HOW CAN ANOTHER 
KEYBOARD CONNECT? 

Anyone have information on how to Inter- 
face another keyboard in parallel? 

—BORIS LAVRINOFF, 1240 Arthur st„ 
Regina, Sask, Canada S4T 4V? 



Extensive, easy-to-read directions are 
included to show the user what options 
are available and how to use them. Also 
included are forms that can be used 
each week to record the league results, 
BLISS supports hard copy, but those 
not having line printer can still use 
the package. 

OPTIONS 

Some of the options available in BUSS 
include six different ways of handicap- 
ping; awarding of game points to individ- 
uals as well as teams, if desired; award- 
ing game points for total pins as well as 
individual games; calculating individual 
leaders in four different categories for 
both males and females; and calculating 
blind scores by either a percentage or 
standard deduction from the bowler's 
average, 

BLISS can be used by TRS-80 owners 
to keep statistics for their own league or 
to offer a service to leagues in their 
area. League record-keeping services 
could be performed by the owner, or 
TRS-80 time could be rented to league 
secrete rles to do their own record-keeping 
BLISS'S simple CFP operation can be 
easily learned by anyone in minutes. 

Provision is made in the initial program 
to enter or modify cumulative data. This 
enables the user to begin using BLISS 
at any time during the bowling season, 

BLISS is available for just $24.95 from 
Aquarius, 8 Yorktown ave., West Chester 
PA 19380 (215) 696-3718. 

Pilot now ready 
on cassette 

Practical-Pilot, for computer-aided in- 
struction is now available for 16K Level 
H TRS-80S, from Practical Applications, 
Practical- Pilot is the new easy-to-learn, 
easier-to-use language invented by Dr, 
John Stockweather for computer instruct- 
ion, and rewritten for Micro-Soft Basic. 

Practical Applications has lowered the 
price to only $25. Those who bought it at 
the old $40 or $50 prices have been sent 
rebates and their first update package. 
Preliminary Applications manuals are 
available for $1. 

Practical Applications is at box 4139, 
Foster City CA 94404 (415) 573-8217, 
Bank-Americard, Visa and Master 
Charge accepted. 

Monitor loses 
horizontal hold 

Have found a monitor problem that seems 
to crop up fairly often, When you fill the 
screen with solid white elements there is 
a loss of horizontal hold. 

I got another monitor and have had no 
jroblems since. 

Replaced my $%»$+%* relay with a 
xiend's help a la CTE Bulletin 1:3 art- 
icle and it is working fine. Also popped 
in 16K memory at the same time. Great!!! 

—John Sullivan, 1053 East Palm st„ 
Altadena CA 91001 



Channel Data 
personal ledger 

Formerly in PET format. Personal Led- 
ger is a complete double entry book- 
keeping system with provisions for bud- 
geting and keeping records of income, 
deductible and non-deductible expenses, 
assets and liabilities. Its simple inter- 
active features enable entering transae- . 
tions, adding or editing accounts, and 
printing of a detailed Income Statement 
and Balance Sheet, 

Users completely unfamiliar with com- 
puterized accounting and with little or no 
knowledge of bookkeeping can use the 
system. 

Up to 50 accounts are allowed with names 
and budgets specified by the user. An 
audit trail of all entered transactions is 
printed on the screen where it can be 
copied with the screen printer or copied 
to cassette if you do not have a printer. 

All account data is stored on cassette, 
loaded prior to entering transactions and 
stored after entering transactions. 

There is no waiting for printing to the 
tape during operation of the system. 
Extensive error recovery features are 
included to allow reentry of an erron- 
eous instruction or value. 

Personal Ledger runs in 8k bytes of 
free RAM on Commodore's PET and 16k 
bytes on Radio Shack's TRS-80 Level II. 
Level II BASIC is a version of Micro- 
soft BASIC which can be translated to 
most other BASIC systems with mini- 
mum modifications. 

Personal Ledger is supplied on cassette 
in TRS-80 Level U or Commodore PET 
format (please specify) and includes a 
complete manual with a program listing, 
flow charts, sample data, and complete 
operating instructions. All for only $20.00 
(Calif, residents please add 6% sales tax) 
by Channel Data Systems, 5960 Mandarin 
Avenue, Goleta, CA 93017, or telephone 
(805) 964-6695. 



Two errors 

in 1:1 schematics 

At least two errors occur in your sche- 
matics and also in the official RS service 
manual. On your page 28, those two 
spare gates are in Z25, not Z23. And on 
your page 24, the Q and Q of the spare 
flip-flop come out on pins 9 and 8 respect- 
ively, not 8 and 7 as shown. 
—MARTIN TOBIAS, 8290 N. Federal 
blvd., #100, Westminster CO 80030 

Bug in Level II 
exponent routine 

There is one small bug in the Level II 
math functions. If you try 3t6 you get 
729.001 yet 3t? becomes accurate a.-.. 
gain. It seems that the exponentiation 
routine has a rounding error for certain 
combinations that only appears occasion- 
aUy. 
-R.I, FLETT, 31/9 Nicholson St., Bal- 
main 2041 Australia 



High-speed tape 
for TRS-80 

A universal tape storage device that inter- 
faces to Expansion— interfaced TRS-80 has 
been announced by MECA, manufacturers 
of Alpha-1 and Delta-1 mass storage sys- 
tems. 

Called BETA-1, this unit plugs directly 
into _a: standard eight-bit parallel port, 
available on the expansion interface. Ser- 
ial port-'connection is offered as an option. 

An upcoming option will allow the tape 
to connect directly to unexpanded TRS-80. 

The high speed digital tape transport 
features random SEEK at more than 100 
inches per second, with average access 
times in 10 seconds or less, and loading 
time at 8,000 bits per second. A double- 
speed option is available to permit loading 
speed of 16,000 bits per second. 

Y,rnp\oyYng YneinoaBYry-sVsaiaaro.p'nase- 
encoding technique, the BETA-1 is re- 
ported to be highly reliable. An internal 
8035 microprocessor with a IK byte pro- 
gram and high level tape operating sys- 
tem assure easy-to-use operation. 

Storage capacity and performance are 
said to compete favorably with more costly 
disk storage systems. Delivered fully 
assembled and tested, the BETA-1 is 
priced at $399 in single units . Quantity 
discounts are available to qualified deal- 
ers. For information, contact MECA, 
7026 O.W.S. rd. Yucca Valley CA 92284. 
Telephone (714) 365-7686 



New England 
resources listed 

Beginning in April New England micro- 
computer enthusiasts will have a complete 
directory available for locating products 
and services. "The First New England 
Microcomputer Resource Handbook". 
Designed as a directory of every resource 
available in New England. "The Handbook" 
will list and describe: computers, peri- 
pherals, software, retailers, repair orga- 
nizations, courses, clubs, user groups, 
user publications, and trade journals. "The 
Handbook" is another resource of The 
Boston Computer Society. 

With "The First New England Micro- 
computer Resource Handbook" home, 
school, business and laboratory computer 
users will be able to locate easily software, 
user groups, peripherals, user publi- 
cations and repair services. 

Prospective purchasers will be able to 
compare costs and features of computers, 
as well as services and support by local 
vendors; 

Novices to the microcomputer pheno- 
menon mil have a resource for locating 
stores, clubs and courses to help further 
their involvement and understanding. 

Visitors to the New England area will 
have, a complete list of places to visit. 

"The Handbook" wUl be approximately 
75 pages and will seU for $2 at partici- 
paSmg coTfiptfter Stores or "csy maft ixom: 
The Boston Computer Society, 17 Chest- 
nut st.i Boston MA 02108 





Beta-1— High-speed tape for TRS-80 f\ 
stores one megabyte, with 10 second 
average access time. >• 



TBEEP-From Web Associates. 



CIVIL ENGINEER USING TRS-80 

I nave a 16K Level II TRS-80 and am just 
starting to use it in Civil Engineering 
studies, mostly hydrology and hydraulics. 

I am curious to know if any other TRS- 
80 owner is writing programs in this 
field. 

The first issue of TRS-80 Computing 
looks great. 

—GEORGE A. MAKELA, 15611 Autumn- 
brook, Houston TX 77068 



WANTS HOMEBREW 32K, 
ATARI INTERFACE 

I jun particularly interested in a 'home- 
brew' method of how to increase my 
TIiS-80 to 32K without going the ex- 
pansion-interface or the TRS-80 to S-100 
Bus Interface Route. 

Also, if you run across some bright 
person who has figured out a way to 
interface an Atari Video Game (the $179.00 
Type) to the TRS-80 to produce color 
graphics I would be super interested in 

--BARRY L. ADAMS.109 Valley Place 
Greenville NC 27834 



Beeper connects 
to cassette port 

Larger business computers are equipped 
with beepers to save time by signalling 
the computer operator that an error has 
occurred or that some additional action 
must be taken to continue processing. 

More and more TRS-80 business sys- 
tems are being installed and being oper- 
ated by non-computer oriented personnel. 
To the rescue, Web Associates has an- 
nounced the availability of alow-cost, easy 
to install, and easy to use software control- 
ed beeper. Tbeep produces a clear, dis- 
tinct tone similar to that of a pocket 
pager and is programmed by a minimum 
of two Level H Basic instructions or by 
four machine language instructions. With- 
in some constraints, the length of the beep 
is also software controlable. 

Tbeep is powered by a long-life bat- 
tery (included) and is simply plugged in 
line with the Aux cable to the cassette, not 
interfering with or making any sound 
during normal cassette operations. 

Some of tee more imaginative uses of 
Tbeep, beyond of course games, are to 
signal when a long sort or data tape load 
is complete, or by programming the ON 
ERROR GOTO statement to go to a sub- 
routine to activate the beeper, one may 
produce a beep even in the edit mode, if, 
upon hitting Return, an error occurs. 

Tbeep is in a smaU, neat box of approx- 
imately 1 1/4x1 1/4x2 1/4 inches and is 
compatible with all TRS-80 Level H con- 
figurations, including disk. TBEEP seUs 
for $27.95 (Calif, residents add 6%) and 
is avauaxiie ior immediate delivery, Irom 
Web Associates, box 60-N, Monrovia CA 
91016 



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North named 
Tandy chairman 

Phil R. North has been named chairman 
of the board and president of Tandy Cor- 
poration, Radio Shack parent company. 

He succeeds Charles D. Tandy, founder 
of the company, who died November 4. 

North, 60 , has been a director of Tan- 
dy Corporation since 1966. From 1968 to 
1977 he served as special consultant to 
Charles Tandy and had been his admin- 
istrative aide since 1977. 

From 1949 to 1956 North was a vice- 
president of Carter Publications, Inc., 
and Executive Editor of the Ft. Worth 
Star-Telegram. From 1956 to 1962 he 
served as assistant general manager of 
the newspaper. 

A native of Ft. Worth, North gradu- 
ated from Central (now Paschal) High 
School in Ft. Worth in 1935 in the same 
class with Charles Tandy, then earned 
his Bachelor's Degree from the Univer- 
sity of Notre Dame in 1939. 

After graduation North reported for the 
Nashville Tennessean, then in 1940 en- 
listed in the U.S. Army. He served in the 
Pacific Theater earning the rank of major 
as a press aide to General Douglas Mac- 
Arthur, where at 24 he was the youngest 
member of Mac Arthur's staff. 

Shirley directs 
computer sales 

Jon A. Shirley has been appointed Radio 
Shack computer merchandising director. 

Shirley, who will report to Radio Shack 
President Lewis Kornfeld, wiU be resp- 
onsible for supervising the operations of 
the computer products merchandising de- 
partment, including such functions as pro- 
duct evaluation, buying and advertising. 

Since joining Radio Shack in 1958 as a 
store department manager, Shirley has 
served as store and district manager, 
buyer and merchandising manager. 

From 1973 until being named to his new 
position, he had been merchandising vice- 
president for the European Tandy Inter- 
national Electronics. 

Originally from San Diego, Shirley lives 
in Azle, Texas with his wife Mary, and 
their children, Erickson, 19; Peter, 11 
and Mary, 8. 



Kromer directs 
computer centers 

Ted F. Cromer has been named director 
of Radio Shack Computer Centers, a new 
chain of sales and service stores pre- 
sently being opened throughout the coun- 
try. 

In his new position, Cromer wlH be 
responsible for opening and supervising 
the operations of the new Radio Shack 
Computer Centers. He will report to 
Radio Shack President Lewis Kornfeld. 

Before joining Radio Shack this May 
as general manager of Tandy Computers, 
now Radio Shack Computer Centers, 
Cromer had been with D3M for 13 years 
In a variety of branch, district and re- 
gional positions. 

OriginaUy from Fort Worth, Cromer 
received his B.B.A from Sam Houston 
State University. He is presently living 
in Aledo, Texas with his wife, Carol, and 
children, Stacy, 18; Kim, IS; Wendy, 16; 
Eddie, 16; and Buck, 14. 

The First of the planned chain of 50 
Radio Shack Computer Centers is in op- 
eration in Fort Worth. A second store 
opened recently in Dallas, and additional 
computer centers axe expected to open 
soon in New York, Tampa, Atlanta, San 
Francisco, Los Angeles and Chicago. 

Some of the new Radio Shack Computer 
Centers are expected to be located within 
new or existing Radio Shack stores. 

The purpose of the new major-market 
facilities, according to Kornfeld, the com- 
pany's president, will be to assist area 
Radio Shack stores in marketing the com- 
pany's TRS-80 micro-computer system 
and peripheral equipment, and provide 
after-sale technical service to customers. 




KORNFELD 



CROMER 



Kornfeld named 
Tandy veep 

Lewis Kornfeld has been named executive 
vice president of Tandy Corporation 
Radio Shack's parent company. 

Kornfeld, who has been president of 
Radio Shack since 1970, will continue to 
serve in that capacity as well. He has 
also been a director of Tandy Corporation 
since 1975. 

Kornfeld joined Radio Shack as advert- 
ising manager in 1948 and in 1954 was 
promoted to advertising vice president. 



APPEL 



ROACH 




Appel now senior 
vice president 



Bernard S. Appel has been promoted to 
Radio Shack senior vice president, mer- 
chandising and advertising for Radio 
Shack. 

Appel joined Radio Shack in 1959 as a 
buyer. In 1966 he was promoted to mer- 
chandise manager, and in 1970 was nam- 
ed vice president, merchandising. Earlier, 
between 1949 and 1959, he gained exper- 
ience with a general merchandise and 
catalog house. 

A 1949 graduate of Boston English High 
School, Appel served with the U.S. Coast 
Guard from 1951 to 1954, and received 
his A.B.A. from Boston University in 
1959. 

He's listed in "Who's Who in Finance 
and Industry", and is a member of the 
Mason's Adelphi Lodge in Massachusetts, 
the Shrine Moslah lodge in Ft. Worth and 
the Electronic V.I.P. club. 

Appel has served since 1975 on the 
board of directors of the Jewish Feder- 
ation of Ft. Worth, and is currently vice 
president of congregation Ahaveth Sholom. 

Roach oversees 
operations 

John V. Roach has been named executive 
vice president of Radio Shack where he 
will be responsible for overseeing and 
coordinating all phases of the company's 
worldwide operations. 

Roach, 40, reports to Radio Shack Pres- 
ident Lewis Kornfeld. 

Roach began his career with Radio 
Shack's parent company, Tandy Corpor- 
ation, in 1967 as general manager of Tan- 
dy Computer Services, the corporate com- 
puter service bureau. In this position he 
was responsible for the development of the 
accounting, mailing, and merchandising 
systems used in Radio Shack as well as the 
rest of the corporation. 

OriginaUy from Ft. Worth, Roach grad-? 
uated in 1961 with a B.A. in physics and in 
1965 earned his M.B.A., both from Texas 
Christian University. 

He lives in Ft. Worth with his wife, Jean, 
and daughter, Amy, 12 and Lori, 5. 



Here's index to preliminary DOS, disk Basic manuals 



Promises, promises! We TRSDOS owners haven't seen hide 
nor hair of that famous new DOS manual. We're still 
blundering along with the old preliminary tnformattonf 
So, to help everyone blunder along more efficiently, we've 
put together an index to all the mini-disk information 
available from Radio Shack. 

The key to the index is: 
Page numbers without a prefix letter refer to items in: 
DISK' BASIC VER l.l/TRSDOS VER 2,0 Prelim. Inst. 
Manual— July, 1978 



Page numbers preceded by the letter "f" refer to items in: 
TRSDOS 2.1 FACT SHEET— August 30, 1978 
Page numbers preceded by the letter "m" refer to items in: 
"More Things You Should Know''— August 30, 1978 
When an item is preceded by a "*', it is a command which 
can be used only when the TRS-80 is in the TRSDOS mode. 
Note that one command, LOAD, can be used in both TRS- 
DOS and DISK BASIC modes and xxeazs different things in 
both modes. Page numbers followed by "+" indicate that 
the item continues beyond the page indicated, 

-JOHN STRONG 



m 

<D 

3 

m 
w 

u 

o 

t-t 

in 



•APPEND f2 

♦ATTBI8 f2 

♦AUTO 47 

♦BACKUP ft,f5,48 

Buffer {random) , . . .29,33 

C402D fl 

CLOAD7&CLOAD 15 

CLOCK f7,50 

♦COPY 48 

CRC .. 50 

CMD"D" IS 

CMD"R" CMD"T" ..m4,10,14+ 

CMD"S" 5,23 

CLOSE . . . 21 

CSAVE 15 

CVLCVS.CVD 40+ 

♦DATE 10,50 

♦Debug fl.48 

♦DEBUG <OFF) fl 

DBF 'FN 10 

DBF USR , 13 

♦DEVICE 

•MR ... , f3,17,49 

Disk Basic Commands 8 

DISK DUMP f6,m3 

Diskettes 6 



DOS Commands 16+ 

DOS READY 23 

Drive Number 18 

♦DUMP f4 

EOF +3,27 

EXEC f2 

Error messages 46,50 

FIELD 30,32+ 

FILE ACCESS DENIED ... 50 

File Extensions 17 

File Names 17+ 

FILE NOT FOUND 50 

File numbers 20 

♦FORMAT fl.f5,49 

*FREE f4 

GET 38 

GRANS f3 

Granule f3 

Hex constants 12 

HOW MANY FILES? . , . .5,20 

INPUT* .25 

INSTR 10 

*K1LL fl+,21 



LIB . . .f4 

*LIST fl 

LINE INPUT 15,26 

*LOAD f4 

LOAD 23 

LOCK f4+ 

LOF 36 

Logical record f3,42 

LRL f3 

LSET,RSET 33 

Memory required 7 

Memory available 6 

MEMORYSIZE? .5 

MERGE 22 

MID$ 9 

MKI$,MKS$,MKD$ 34+ 

Octal constants 12 

OPEN 20 

P f 3 

Password 17++ 

Physical record 42 

Power up 4 

*PRINT#N m2,24 

PRINT USING 24 

*PROT , f2,f4+ 

PUT 35 



PW f4+ 

Random Files 29+ 

READ £2 

♦RENAME f2,f5 

RE.NUM m3 

Reset button 4 

RSET.LSET 33 

RUN ••filename" 10,50 

Sector 6 

SAVE fl,ml,22 2 

Sequential files , , 24+ © 

Sub-records 42 « 

SYSTEM f4 * 

SYSTEM Tapes f5„3,l < 

TAB(PRINT) ml O 

♦TAPEDISK f4+ ^ 

♦TRACE f7,50 o> 

TRACE LOCKOUT 50 K 

♦T1ME$ 10,50 M 

UNLOCK f4+ ■"» 

USRn 12++ * 

Utilities (DOS) 47 M 

♦VERIFY f5 d 

WRITE f2 £ 

& + &H 12 

♦Indicates a DOS command £ 

in 




instaU jumper 
FIGURE 2 



<3reen 



install jumper 
solder 100a -4 
resistor here 



iflOOJl j /t' 

resistor islhere* 

cm after 

(dbnnLiki » I • 
not. matrnP. 
lOOJlresistor 




FIGURE 5 



cut ^ 

etch at "x" 



ROGY 




FIG. 1 



red wire 

in flat 
cable 



16" max. 



LEVEL II CONVERSION -Drawing which accompanied Dr. Thomas Perera's article, "You 
can convert own TRS-80 with Level n ROM kit", in TRS-80 Computing 1:2, was unintelligible 
at certain key places. We've reconstituted it, and here is another try. 



K 

O 

Xi 



O 
Z 

s 
o 
o 

o 

as 

m 

K 



IN 





3 
m 

.52 

IN 

t— I 

I 

to 



Level II Basic Reference Manual Index"* 



oo 

'£> 
O 
IN 

< 
O 

I 

Ui 

■ <-« 



00 

8 



CO 



O 

Z 

& 
ft 

o 

O 
o 

CO 



IN 



. By JOHN STRONG . 

Note: This index applies to both 
the first and second printing of 
the final black cover Reference 
Manual. Most items are on the 
same page in both manuals. 
When they are not, page num- 
bers followed by the symbol * 
apply to the first printing only. 
The same item appears one page 
later in the second printing. 
Page numbers followed by ** 
indicate items which exist only 
in the second printing. Page 
numbers followed by + indicate 
items which extend for one or 
more pages beyond the page 
numbers listed. 

3/1,3/7+, A/6 

: 1/2 

;..■ 3/1 

-* (cursor tab) , 1/2 

^-(backspace cur.) .... .1/2,9/2 

t (exponent) 1/4,9/3 

4, .(line feed) 1/2 

%,!,#,$ 1/4.A/2 

*,.*%,&+*- 3/3,A/l7 

?,' 1/7.A/1 

<,<>•>,<=.=,>= ..... .1/5.A/2 

+ (concatenate) . .,1/5, A/2, 5/3 

@ 3/2 

! (print using) 3/5 

?? 3/7 

32-64 Display .1/6,5/4 

* (auto) . . 2/1 

A 9/4.A/4* 

Abbreviations 1/7 

ABS 7/1 

AND 1/5 

Arithmetic Functions . . . .7/- 

Arrays .6/- 

Array names 1/4 

Array size 4/3+, 6/2 

ASC .5/3, A/12 

ASCII codes . . . . .C/2 

ATN .7/1 

AUTO . ......... ,2/l,A/3 

AT (see Level 1) 

BAD 7. .2/3 

Base conversions ..... .G/l 

BREAK IN .4/5 

BREAK key j/3,2/1 



C 9/5 

Cassette i,2/2+ 

Cassette, dual 10/1+ 

CHR$ 5/4,A/l2 

CINT 7/2,A/13 

CDBL 7/l,A/l3 

CLEAR .... 1/2, 1/6,2/2, A/3 
CLEAR n . . .2/2, 4/3, A/8, A/3 
CLOAD . . .i+,2/2,10/2,A/3** 

CLOAD? i,2/2,A/3** 

CLS 8/3.A/11 

Commands 2/-, a/3 

Command mode .1/1+ 

Concatenate (+) 1/5 

Constant precision 4 / 14f . fll / 2 

CONT 2/3 

COS 7/2,A/l3 

CSAVE . . . .i+,2/3,10/2,A/3** 
CSNG 7/2,A/l3 

D 1/4,9/5 

DATA 3/8.A/6 

DEFDBL 4/2,A/8 

DEFINT 4/i,A/8 

DEFSNG 4/2,A/8 

DEF statements li/i 

DEFSTR 4/3,A/8 

DELETE 2/3, A/3* 

Depth of array 4/4,6/3 

Derived functions F/l 

DLM 4/3+,6/2,H/l,A/8 

Disk commands 10/3 

Disk memory ........ .10/3 

Display 32/64 1/6,5/4 

Display worksheet E/l 

Double precision 1/4,4/2 

E 4/14, 9/4,A/2, A/4* 

EDIT 2/4,9/1, A/3* 

Edit mode 1/2,9/-, a/4 

Editing 9/- 

ELSE 4/13 

END 4/4.A/9 

ENTER key 9/2,1/1* 

ERL .8/2.A/14 

ERR/2+1 8/3,A/l4 

ERROR 4/l0,A/l0 

Error codes b/1 

Error messages .... .1/63/2 

Execute mode 1/2+ 

Expansion interface .... .10/ 
EXTRA IGNORED .3/8 



File name ......... .-'.2/2+ 

FIX ;■;■. .7/2;Ayi3 

FOR TO 4/8,1 1/2; A/10 

Format Specifiers . . . . *-;3/3+ 

Forbidden words ."".'A/15 

FRE 5/5;A/l2 

Function codes ...... W-*€/l 

Glossary .1/8 

GOTO, .. ,4/5,ll/l,A/9 

GOSUB 4/6,11/1^0* 

Graphics l/6,8/i;it/2; 

Graphics codes V JC/2'- 

XI * * W * m ******** * ♦ jr"*«*/-0-* 

I 9/4iA/*i«- 

IF ' .4/l2,5/5,Ayi|; 

INKEY$ :5/5^i2.* 

INP ' 8/4,A/ff.; ! 

INPUT 3/7^6i 

INPUT "~"; ..V.-3-/8:*- 

input#-i, ..z/n-0^ 

Input-Output ...;. i'.Str- 

Instring subroutine ....;■ r5/9'-s 

INT 7/2+vA/l"^! 

Integer precision ^/^/-y^x'/i'. 
Intrinsic functions . . . <■* iil/jt'i 

,¥/6 X 



K 

Keyboard rolloiyer..^ 1/7 

L. ........... ..."'i.:< .y/o 

LEFT$ .,.:i:6/d f A/12 

LEN ..- 5/6.A/12 

Limits A/16 

Line numbers ......... .2/1 

Line printer 10/2+ 

LIST 2/4,A/3* 

LLIST , , „,,,,, .10/2 

LOG 7/3.A/13 

Logical operators . . .1/5,8/10 
LPRINT . . .10/2 

Machine language ...... .2/5 

MEM . .8/4,A/l4 

Memory available ....:.. .8/4 

Memory location . . . . ; . . .8/8 

Memory map .......... .D/l 

Memory required ....;.. .8/8 

MEMORY SIZE ;. . .1/1 

MED$ 5/6.A/12 

Mini Disk . . ' 'J V ';".' '.' V '.' . . 10/3 

Monitor mode 1/2 

Multiple statements on one line 
.1/2,4/12,11/1+ 



REFERENCE MANUAL 
Index, continued : 

NEW . . 2/4 

NEXT . . .4/8,4/10,11/2, A/10 
NOT . 1/5 

Object files 2/5 

ON ERROR GOTO . 4/ll, A/lO 

ON GOTO 4/6,A/9 

ON GOSUB 4/7 

On-off switches l/l 

Operating modes 1/1 

OR 1/5 

Order of operations . .l/6,A/3 

OUT 8/4.A/H 

Parentheses 1/6,11/1 

PEEK . 8/5,A/l4 

POINT 8/2.A/14 

POKE < . 8/5,ll/2,All 

POS ;; '. 8/6,A/l4 

Precision 1 / 4i4 /l+,4/l4*,8/8 

PRINT 3/l,A/5 

PRINT 3/2,A/6 

PRINT#-1 3/10.A/6 

PRINT TAB 3/2 

PRINT USING 3/3, A/6 

Print zones . .3/2 

Program statements 4/- 

Prompt 2/1 



RANDOM 7/3.A/10 

READ 3/9,ll/2,A/6 

REDO 3/7 

Relational operator 1/5 

REM 4/12,11/2, A/10 

Reserved words . . . .1/3, A/15 

RESET . .8/2,A/ll 

RESTORE 3/lO,A/6* 

RESUME 4/ll,A/l0 

RETURN 4/6.A/9 

RIGHT$ 5/7, A/1 2 

RND .7/3,A/l3 

Rollover keyboard 1/7 

RUN 1/2,2/4 

S 9/6 

Save time and space .... .11/- 

Selectable display 1/6 

SET 8/l.A/ll 

Setting up the TRS-80 i 

SGN 7/4.A/13 

SHIFTt 9/3 

SHIFTS (delete line) 1/2 

SHIFT -+ (32/64) 1/2 

SHIFT @ 1/3 

SIN. . . .- . . .7/4.A/14 

Single precision 1/4,4/2 

Space bar 9/2 

Space compression codes „ > 2 

Specifications A/16 



SQR 7/4.A/14 

STEP 4/8,A/lO 

STOP 4/5.A/9 

STR$ 5/7,A/l2 

Strings 1/4,5/- 

String operations 1/5 

STRING$ 5/7,A/l2 

String storage space 

2/2,4/3,5/5 

Syntax error 1/2 

SYSTEM ■ 2/5 

TAB .3/2.A/6 

TAB codes C/2 

TAN 7/4,A/l4 

THEN 4/13 

Time of execution .... .11/2 

TROFF 2/5 

TRON . . . 2/5 

Type conversion . . . ,1/4.4/14 

User programs 11/- 

USING 3/3,A/6 

USR 8/7, A/1 4 

VAL ........ 5/8,A/12 

Variable names 1/3+ 

Variable types l/3+,4/l 

VARPTR 8/8,A/l4 

Video display sheet E/l 

X 9/3.A/5 



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